Hope To The End.......... All chip articles ........ Bio-sensors ...... DNA chips ...... nanotechnology

DRUG Delivery System :

Lab on a chip... Intellect

keywords: MEMS, microsensors, sensors, nanotechnology, medical devices, drug eluting, chemotherapy agents,
"pharmacy on a smart chip",
Persons: John P. Walters National Drug Control Policy "drug czar" ; Dr. Richard, Seelig, Dr. Howard, Weintraub, Dr. Sameer Mahta, Robert Langer

MEMS http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MEMS

SENSORS http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensors

" There will be, in the next generation or so, a pharmacological method of making people love their servitude, and producing dictatorship without tears, so to speak, producing a kind of painless concentration camp for entire societies, so that people will in fact have their liberties taken away from them, but will rather enjoy it, because they will be distracted from any desire to rebel by propaganda or brainwashing, or brainwashing enhanced by pharmacological methods. And this seems to be the final revolution."
Aldous Huxley, Tavistock Group, California Medical School, 1961

From the Newswire :

DNA Vereflu -- portable database monitored by TPTB (
the powers that be )
STMicroelectronics and Veredus Laboratories are also honing in on an answer for those that are squeamish about the spread of the Avian Flu into the human populace. Put a lab on a chip. One that can tell the difference in influenza strains within 2 hours. It will verify whether or not the strain you are ill with is Influenza A or B, a drug-resistant strain or a mutated variant including the Avian Flu or H5N1 strain .
All the lab on a chip needs is a bit of your DNA....whether through blood, sputum or swab. Where does all that data go later on? The lab on a chip is portable, maybe FEMA can stop by and make sure you're ok during the next flu season. According to Emaxhealth.com,
"VereFlu will enable healthcare professionals [ Ed: and ???] to effectively monitor mutations of flu viruses and quickly identify the main strain of the season," said Dr Rosemary Tan, Chief Executive Officer of Veredus Laboratories.

Smaller verichip for vascular implant of medicine
Buy one; get next chip at reduced rate
..." the vascular port containing the microchip"
Additionally, Medcomp will buy scanners from VeriChip for use by healthcare professionals nationwide in order to identify a patient’s vascular port for correct medication dosage.
[ ed: Quoting Scott Silverman ] : " Not only will we be selling a smaller version of our microchip [ed: ID Verichip ] , but we also expect to offer the VeriMed™ Health Link patient identification service [ ed: the health ID Verichip ] at a reduced rate to all patients who receive a Medcomp vascular port.”
Timothy Schweikert, President of Medcomp,

Brain Receptor- manipulation
'Champix' aka 'Chantix' ( varenicline ; Pfizer ) causes suicidal thoughts, depression. Linked to suicides
-- Feb. 2008
"Pfizer, who make the smoking cessation drug Chantix (varenicline), have updated the drug's labelling in the United States to reflect the fact patients may experience "serious neuropsychiatric symptoms", including suicidal behaviour.
[ Ed: Labelling isn't near as effective as taking it off the market altogether, if they really cared ]
Although Pfizer's Patient Information sheet mentions vomiting, nausea, abnormal dreams, sleep disturbance, and constipation, it fails to alert smokers to less frequent yet more serious risks such as kidney failure, suicidal thoughts, hallucinations, psychotic events, joint pain, muscle pain, arthritis and suicide.
"I started to feel really grouchy all the time, and would shout and scream at my family for no good reason, which is totally out of character."

What is NRT ? Nicotine Replacement Therapy

Pfizer's Chantix : 55 Suicides

Womb on a chip for IVF
To tackle these problems, Fujii's team has created a "lab on a chip" that is 2 millimetres across and 0.5 millimetres high, in which up to 20 eggs can be fertilised and then grown until they are ready for implantation. Endometrial cells, which line real wombs, are also grown in the device, so that the chemicals they produce can reach the embryos and help them grow. "We are providing the embryos with a much more comfortable environment, mimicking what happens in the body," Fujii says.

Cancer pump dispenses overdose that kills

Denise Melanson of Rainbow Lake was among at least eight people across North America accidentally killed when an improperly programmed medical pump gave her a lethal dose of cancer drugs, an report on the 43-year-old woman’s death revealed Tuesday

Verichip Board member now board member of Drug Company
Tommy Thompson , Alfacell

Mega-info in Drug-delivery systems ( excellent diagrams )

MicroCHIPS drug delivery system

Ed: the question is : Will it be used for good, or for evil ???
Will this be applied for mind control ??
BEDFORD, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--March 13, 2006--Researchers at MicroCHIPS, Inc., have demonstrated for the first time that it is possible, using an implanted microchip device and wireless technology, to actively control the release of drugs in the body over a prolonged period of time.
"This research is an important step toward development of novel drug delivery systems in which small devices filled with potent, therapeutic drugs are used to release medicines into the body as needed," said
John Santini, PhD, president of MicroCHIPS.

The technology, described in the March 12 online edition of Nature Biotechnology, is unique in its use of wireless signaling, its system of reservoirs allowing precise, efficient delivery of solids, liquids or gels, and its small size. It is not expected to replace all pills or other forms of drug delivery. Rather, it will deliver proteins, small molecules and other drugs that are highly potent, have limited stability, and must be delivered in precise doses at specific times.
Santini, along with Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professors Robert Langer, ScD and Michael J. Cima, PhD, began work on the concept of so-called "intelligent drug delivery devices" more than a decade ago.

The current study, which used a microprocessor and a power source, demonstrates the feasibility of what Santini calls "active" reservoir control. According to Santini, while one important use of reservoirs is to contain drugs for release, reservoirs can also be used to selectively expose biosensors in order to monitor and provide feedback on conditions in a patient's body. Biosensors may one day be interactively paired with drug delivery.
The research, reported in "Chronic, programmed polypeptide delivery from an implanted multireservoir microchip," is scheduled for publication online at www.nature.com/naturebiotechnology on March 12 and in the April print edition of Nature Biotechnology.
MicroChips is also working on another type of reservoir technology, which Santini terms "passive." Passive reservoir systems use specially-designed, layered polymers which, when implanted, regulate drug release over time without microprocessors or power sources, Santini said

Drugs, Mind Control and Nazism

Biotech Dollars ; Designer Drugs .. personalized just for you
Ed : Does he mean subdermal ?
"The right medicine to the right person at the right dosage at the right time," Tommy Thompson, former U.S. Health and Human Services secretary, said Tuesday at what organizers say was the first-ever business conference on the industry.
Now, more investors and companies are clamoring for similar profit in personalized medicine. They're pursuing start-ups that are leveraging advances in genetics [ Ed : DNA ] to find medicine's holy grail:
drugs that are safer, cheaper and more effective because they're fine-tuned — or "personalized" — for specific groups of patients [ Ed : is that the same as "targeting " ? ]

Polymers are plastics ................. and they are everywhere


Drug-eluting stents ...polymers


Morphine on a chip, remote controlled
--Aug 8, 2005
a novel solution - a device implanted into his body which gives off minute amounts of morphine throughout the day
He is the first person to be implanted with the SynchroMed device for chronic pain at Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH). Three other patients who were implanted with this device were operated on for cancer pain.
It has a computer chip which is controlled by remote control to deliver medication throughout the day
According to Dr Lee, with all opioids (the major class of analgesics used in the management of moderate to severe pain) there's a question of addiction.

Pain medication pump systems

Former Sen. Bill Bradley, Director for LabNow ( Lab-on-a-chip)
Rick Hawkins, Chairman and CEO of LabNow, expressed his excitement regarding Senator Bill Bradley's appointment. "Senator Bradley brings a wealth of knowledge and skills to LabNow. HIV/AIDS is a highly politicized disease and his legislative experience on healthcare issues acquired during his eighteen years as Senator of New Jersey, the heart of the pharmaceutical and biotechnology world, is a major asset to the company. Bill Bradley's accomplishments speak for themselves...Rhodes Scholar, NBA Hall of Fame, U.S. Senator. I know that his input will add immeasurable energy and value to LabNow's cause."
LabNow licensed lab-on-a-chip sensor technology from the University of Texas that automates fluid analysis. It holds promise for HIV/AIDS management as well as other medical uses, homeland security, environmental chemistry and process engineering

Robert Langer: The Edison of Medicine
Prof. Robert Langer, who has excelled in developing slow-release technologies for drugs and building platforms for cells to eventually create new organs
Langer is the man behind the drug-eluting Cypher stent, a tiny mesh cylinder implanted in weakened cardiac arteries that slowly releases chemicals to reduce the risk of restenosis (re-clogging). This advanced and expensive type of stent was recently included in Israel's basket of health services. He and his team also developed coin-sized wafers that slowly release chemotherapy agents to prevent a malignancy from returning to the site from which brain tumors have been removed.
He has also pioneered ultrasound, magnetic, electrical and enzymatic systems that release drugs in minute amounts and at a steady rate.

Langer found that an oscillating magnetic field could "squeeze out" more drug through the pores in a polymer and be used to deliver 1,000 0.5 mg doses. On this basis, he and colleagues recently developed a prototype for a
"pharmacy on a smart chip"a dime-sized microchip with 34 drug wells on one side, each covered by a thin layer of gold – that can be implanted in a body to monitor blood chemistry and release medication at specific doses and times as needed.

when a tiny electrical current is applied, the gold dissolves in a few seconds, allowing the small amount of drug in a particular well to be released. The device has been designed so that each well can be opened individually. Thus different drugs or doses can be contained in different wells and released at different times.

Drug- dispensing chip
Provides communication between doctors and devices
A wireless chip has been developed for medical implants that could allow doctors to monitor a patient's health from miles away and even control the release of drugs such as insulin.
fitted with such devices as pacemakers and even brain stimulators.
Doctors will be able to use the chip to do such things as adjust pacemakers and, eventually, such drug dispensing devices as implanted insulin pumps.

Pharmaceuticals, EPC and rfid
In the pharma sector an action group has been formed by EPCglobal Inc called Healthcare Life Sciences Business Action Group (HLS BAG) comprising leading manufacturers
Essentially, the EPC is a number designed to uniquely identify a specific item in the supply chain. The EPC number sits on a tag comprised of a silicon chip and an antenna, which is attached to an item. Using radio identification technology (RFID), a tag “communicates” its number to a reader. EPC tags would carry 96-bit or 128-bit “license plates” that would identify a manufacturer, describe the product and include a unique serial number.
Legitimate drug manufacturers overseas would tag their products and customs agencies and distribution companies would be able to scan the tags and check a database to verify the origin of the shipment.

Transistors on a sensor-chip
Some companies are already creating products for this niche. Sensant has created a tiny drum-on-a-chip for improving ultrasounds, while Pria Diagnostics is testing a chip for male fertility testing. Meanwhile, Intel, General Electric and others have developed prototype chips for testing blood samples.

"Chip of Life" microsensor (
microanalyser ) developed by Sphere
Sphere Medical in Cambridge has fused nano and microtechnologies to develop a tiny diagnostic chip that will give doctors access to a range of life-or-death information about critically ill patients in real-time.
The microanalyser will give immediate access to data which currently requires a lab test – taking minutes or hours – or for which there is no test available at the moment. Sphere’s technology platform is based around a tiny microchip, a few milimetres square, onto which are fabricated up to 10 tiny sensors.

Pharmacy on a chip; polymer discs dissolving
Giant leap forward in bionic medicine

Food and Drug Administration approved Applied's VeriChip device, an implantable chip that can be read by a remote sensor to check human vital signs and diagnose other problems.

Will the elderly and handicapped need the chip for medical services ?
Will this involve a drug delivery system ?

Applied Digital appoints Medical Advisory Board
Drs. Richard Seelig, Howard Weintraub, Sameer Mehta
VeriChip Corporation, has formed a Medical Advisory Board to assist in expanding the adoption of VeriChip in the medical community. The Board's initial focus will be to advise the Company on ways to increase the acceptance and expand the marketing of VeriChip to practitioners, hospitals and makers of medical devices, insurance companies and Medicaid/Medicare

Dr. [Howard] Weintraub is a principal of the Landfall Therapeutics Consulting Group, LLC, which provides strategic and technical consulting in the pharmaceutical and medical device arena. He has more than thirty years of experience in pharmaceutical and medical device research and development. Until his retirement in July of 2003, Dr. Weintraub was Vice President, R&D Corporate Staff for C.R. Bard, the medical device company. In this role he worked to establish and maximize synergies across the company's eight development groups, and was responsible for identification and evaluation of new technologies.

Previously, Dr. Weintraub held various research management positions at Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, a Johnson & Johnson Company, where he started and built the drug metabolism and clinical pharmacology organizations. In addition he led various project teams including the group that developed the antidiarrheal, Imodium®. Prior to joining Ortho Pharmaceutical, he was responsible for dermatological and wound care research at Bristol-Myers Squibb in the ConvaTec division and licensed and developed Dovonex(TM), the topical antipsorriatic product. Dr. Weintraub received his B.S. in Pharmacy from Columbia University, and his Ph.D. in biopharmaceutics from the State University of New York at Buffalo.

Drug Metabolism sub-section, where he helped draft the current bioequivalence/bioavailability regulations.
He is a member of the Board of Directors of Digital Angel Corporation (AMEX, DOC), and the privately held biotechnology company, Bioenergy, Inc. He is also a member of the scientific advisory board of Polymerix Corporation, the Strategic Advisory Board of Aderans, Inc., and the advisory board of the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University.

Dr. [Sameer] Mehta is an experienced interventional cardiologist and served as Chief of Interventional Cardiology and Director of the Cardiovascular Library at Cedars Medical Center in Miami.He has served or currently serves on numerous Medical and Scientific Advisory and Board of Directors including EGT Inc, Vizcaya Museum & Gardens, Scimed Inc., Spectranetics Inc., Advanced Interventional Systems Inc.

Subdermal meds and illness ID ... drug-delivery systems
Mind control ? Behavior modification ??
Sastry had earlier said this cheaper alternative to DNA sequencing can be used to treat India-specific genetic disorders such as hypertension ( Ed: high blood pressure ) and thalassaemia.
While DST has given a grant of Rs one crore for the project, Sastry had said that the DNA chip, being developed at the laboratory, will be planted into the human body to treat ailments. The process is not only aimed to reduce cost of drug production and enhance level of automation, but also revolutionize medical science.

NCL is not only institution attempting to develop a chip. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is also working on a chip, which when implanted into the human body with a cocktail of drugs, can avert any medical emergencies.
On the other hand, a disposable lab-on-a-chip (inch by inch with 2-3 millimetres thickness) developed by Indian scientists at the US is also showing promise for conducting various pathological tests at non-laboratory conditions.

Currently undergoing pre-clinical trials at the US for a couple of infectious diseases and gynaecological disorders, Handylab, the spinout company of the university of Michigan, is planning to tailor-make the chip for detection of diseases at Indian conditions.

"Lab-on-a-chip dispensing drugs
Digital Angel seeks to combine biosensor with Verichip
"Biosensors are already thriving in the medical field. External biosensors are used in emergency rooms as point-of-care diagnostic units—such as i-Stat's "lab on a chip," which can reveal almost immediately whether a patient is in cardiac arrest by testing blood chemistry.
Other companies are developing implantable biosensors that track blood glucose levels and deliver insulin. MicroChips is testing a chip implant that offers long-term, time-controlled drug delivery. Digital Angel has discussed merging its external biosensors with the VeriChip, an implantable microprocessor.
Other companies are developing implantable biosensors that track blood glucose levels and deliver insulin. MicroChips is testing a chip implant that offers long-term, time-controlled drug delivery. Digital Angel has discussed merging its external biosensors with the VeriChip, an implantable microprocessor"
[ Ed:
have NOT seen documented that the internal VeriChip is a microprocessor ]

Lifesavers in their Arms -- "The VeriChip System"
Now, patients can have a computer chip embedded in an arm to provide an electronic link to their medical information when they can't communicate or don't have someone to speak for them.
Diabetics may be among the first New Jerseyans offered the choice of having subcutaneous chips implanted to give health-care workers access to their medical records.

VeriChip, developed by a retired New Jersey surgeon, was recently approved by the federal Food and Drug Administration. The implant is strictly voluntary and requires physician authorization.

ZipQuill drug delivery system
( no injector)
for vaccines, antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals

Coming : Drug-chips ??? ... "soma, soma, soma " ----- from "Brave New World "
The device has been developed by Massachusetts-based company MicroCHIPS and has been successfully
tested in a lab rat.
It has been in development for three years and inventor John Santini ...
The fingernail-sized titanium chip is inserted beneath the skin. It contains hundreds of tiny reservoirs, filled with different drugs which are released as needed by software on board.

Israelis develop DNA Computer --molecular computer
  "It is decades off, but future generations of DNA computers could function as doctors inside cells," researcher Ehud Shapiro of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science told Nature.
    Dr. Mauro Ferrari, a specialist in nanotechnology (building products atom by atom) at the National Cancer Institute, said of the research: "The concept is to build something that does not require intervention by a doctor. ... This is very exciting. ... It could allow the killing of cancer at a very, very early stage."
Advocates say the biocomputers could do the work of physicians by diagnosing disease within cells as well as dispensing drugs as required.

Instead of being controlled by silicon chips and electrical circuits, the molecular, or so-called DNA computer, harnesses DNA strands to store information. The researchers stress that DNA can store a huge amount of information.
    They point out that the computer power of 1 trillion compact discs could be stored in less than an ounce of dried DNA. Because billions of the computers can be packed into a single drop of water, they could fit easily inside a human cell, Mr. Shapiro said.
When the computer detects abnormal RNA, it releases an anticancer drug, also made of DNA, which interfere with a cancer cell's activities, causing it to self-destruct.

Nanometer chips under the skin
National Taiwan University released its groundbreaking study on "Advanced Wireless Medical Monitoring Systems" on Tuesday, reporting on the use of nanometer sized chips which are attached to or inserted under the skin of a person's body and equipped with nanometer electronic technology permitting monitoring of the subject's respiration, heartbeat, blood parameters and the like. At the same time, the data can be transmitted via a wireless network so that the patient's data can be sent to a remote handset and computer platform.

The project integrates wireless networks and computerized artificial intelligence methods to integrate medical monitoring and diagnosis systems functions
it means that even while sitting comfortably at home, a doctor can arrive at a diagnosis from a remote hospital location and provide appropriate care for the patient at home.
sensors, allowing, for example, monitoring of important indicators like protein hardness, coagulation, flexibility and density in cardiac patients. The chips are capable of reading these biophysical signs and nanometer chips can even be used to directly perform tests, do analyses, and transmit the results.

Nanotechnology; embedded systems

ESPS Motorola
the development of nanoscale sensors for chem/bio (C/B) detection in the ESPS Center of Excellence

ePrescribing :BluefishRx and EpocratesRx (biometric signature)
BluefishRx is an eprescribing application for Palm handhelds that streamlines the prescription writing process. With BluefishRx, physicians can manage patient details and drug history, choose from a database of over 2,500 drugs, and
write prescriptions directly on their handheld in seconds with a few strokes of the stylus. BluefishRx is now fully integrated with EpocratesRx. Look up drug dosing , formularies, check for drug interactions and more, all while you write prescriptions.

June 6--8 2005 Trax Summit Pharmaceuticals http://www.traxsummit.com

Dr. John Santini -- MicroCHIPS
A PhD graduate of MIT, Dr. Santini is one of the founding members of MicroCHIPS, a developer of implantable microchip drug delivery systems to be used in pain management, hormone and steroid delivery, and some cancer and CNS disorder therapies. The company's patented technology uses silicon microchips and wireless communication to accurately dispense medicine to the body.

SARS chip in Singapore

Singapore hopes to launch in January an electronic chip that will give an almost instant diagnosis of whether a person has Sars, dengue fever, flu or some other respiratory illness.

Ren Ee Chee of the government-run Genome Institute of Singapore told the island republic's Sunday Times newspaper that the respiratory pathogens detection chip would undergo testing soon in conjunction with an unnamed US company.

Detection probes on the chip, which is about the size of a 10p coin, will analyse saliva or nasal mucus dropped on to it and deliver a rapid diagnosis.
It is also hoping to turn Singapore into a global biomedical hub as part of its strategy to diversify an economy battered by the technology slump. High-profile scientists including Ian Wilmut, who cloned Dolly the sheep, have been lured to the tightly controlled state.

Micralyne, a developer and OEM and manufacturer of BioMEMS and other MEMS components, will work with MicroCHIPS as MicroCHIPS continues device development and proceeds towards clinical trials.

"We believe that the technology that MicroCHIPS is developing for implantable MEMS-based drug delivery has the potential to be an important step forward for the effective implementation of therapeutic regimens in the future", commented Chris Lumb, President and CEO of Micralyne. "We are excited to be involved in this work with MicroCHIPS, and pleased to be working for the first time in drug delivery, a relatively new area for BioMEMS applications

Microchip releases chemicals on demand
The researchers have demonstrated this for multiple chemicals in separate reservoirs. In other words, they applied a small voltage between a reservoir containing chemical A and a cathode and observed that chemical's release, then at a later time did the same for a reservoir containing chemical B with the same results. They did this for several different reservoirs filled with one or the other chemical over a period of several hours. This shows "that multiple compounds can be released independently from a single microchip device," the trio write in Nature.

Bush plans mental illness screening for all 'consumers'; even pre-school

Ed. note: Everybody on a pill ?
A sweeping mental health initiative will be unveiled by President George W Bush in
July. The plan promises to integrate mentally ill patients fully into the community by providing "services in the community, rather than institutions," according to a March 2004 progress report entitled New Freedom Initiative (www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/newfreedom/toc-2004.html). While some praise the plan's goals, others say it protects the profits of drug companies at the expense of the public.

Bush established the New Freedom Commission on Mental Health in April 2002 to conduct a "comprehensive study of the United States mental health service delivery system." The commission issued its recommendations in July 2003. Bush instructed more than 25 federal agencies to develop an implementation plan based on those recommendations.

The commission also recommended "Linkage [of screening] with treatment and supports" including "state-of-the-art treatments" using "specific
medications for specific conditions." The commission commended the Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP) as a "model" medication treatment plan that "illustrates an evidence-based practice that results in better consumer outcomes."
Dr Darrel Regier, director of research at the American Psychiatric Association (APA), lauded the president's initiative and the Texas project model saying, "What's nice about TMAP is that this is a logical plan based on efficacy data from clinical trials."

"Political paranoia" now termed "mental illness"
Practice First Amendment ( right of dissent ) and be forced to take drugs
When the 109th Congress convenes in Washington in January, Senator Bill Frist, the first practicing physician elected to the Senate since 1928, plans to file a bill that would define 'political paranoia' as a mental disorder, paving the way for individuals who suffer from paranoid delusions regarding voter fraud, political persecution and FBI surveillance to receive Medicare reimbursement for any psychiatric treatment they receive," writes Hermione Slatkin, Medical Correspondent for the Swift Report. "Rick Smith, a spokesman for Senator Frist, says that the measure has a good chance of passing; something that can only help a portion of the population that is suffering significant distress."

No need for FEMA camps or "preventive detention" when we have a "medical armamentarium" of serotonin uptake inhibitors. All that is needed now is for Frist and the Republicans to devise a law defining "political paranoia" and determining that "political paranoiacs" are a threat to society.
You will take your
Paxil (or something far more debilitating ) and
by court order. Recall Bush's effort to screen the entire population for mental illness, i.e., the New Freedom Initiative. Bush's commission found that "despite their prevalence, mental disorders often go undiagnosed" and recommended comprehensive mental health screening for "consumers of all ages." Naturally, Frist and the Republicans are mostly concerned about the "political paranoia" form of mental illness, as the above news item indicates. http://www.rense.com/general61/emen.htm

Compulsory mental health screening coming

There is a new major U.S. mental health initiative on the docket, based on a report of the New Freedom in Mental Health Commission, which recommends mental health screening for adults and children as young as preschool age, in primary care health settings, schools, and correctional facilities. It also includes expanding school-based mental health programs requiring specific treatments for specific conditions, including the use of specific medications.

Despite a growing public opposition to universal mental health screening, states are being encouraged by the federal government to adopt the measure. Last month Illinois bureaucrats began pushing through a plan passed into law by their legislature to screen the mental health of all pregnant women and children up to 18 years of age in their state.
The plan also includes discounted psychotropic drugs.


Implantable chip's medical dangers

Implantable Medical Devices
medical radio frequency band: MICS Medical Implant Communications Service
....subcutaneous radios and imaging

Boston -- Cambridge Consultants has designed an intelligent radio transceiver architecture that introduces a new level of power economy and performance for in-body medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications.  The design is intended for implementation on system-on-chip (SoC) solutions and provides a control and communications platform suitable for implantable medical devices - a market currently growing at double-digit rates.  The device will operate in the Medical Implant Communications Service (MICS) frequencies - the medical band now emerging as a global standard. 

Ardesta DNA lab on a chip http://www.ardesta.com/1network/netcom1.asp

Novartis -- world's largest generic drug manufacturer
The Swiss drugs firm Novartis today agreed to buy German firm Hexal and most of US company Eon Labs in deals worth €5.6bn (£3.8bn). The acquisitions will make it the world's largest generic drugs manufacturer.
Daniel Vasella, the Novartis chairman and chief executive, has long coveted the top spot in the global generics market. The firm acquired Lek, of Slovenia, in 2002, and bought Sabex, of Canada, last year
Basel-based Norvatis said it would have had combined generic sales of around $5.1bn in 2004 if the takeover deals had been in place then. The figure compared with $4.8bn for the current world leader, Israel's Teva Pharmaceuticals

Novartis has headquarters in Boston ( 2002 ) and works with 800 scientists at Cambridge, MA.

Novartis : More innovative drugs ( chain of genes ) ; less probation time --  "new science"
Editor : more risks; less guarantees ; risking a wrong application
"It's a change in focus," Vasella said in an interview. "In the optimum case it will take out one year or two years" from a drug's development time
Driving Novartis's new focus are recent advances in genetics, which have allowed scientists to better understand the molecular similarities, or "pathways," between different diseases.  Traditionally, pharmaceutical companies have tested drugs by targeting a single gene or protein.  What Novartis wants to do, Vasella said, is understand how a chain of genes may be at the root of several diseases.  
If you know that there's a common pathway between two diseases, then of course the chance that a medicine works in both is very, very high," he said
The drug development strategy is the brainchild of Mark Fishman, a former Harvard professor whom Novartis hired in 2002 as its head of global research
Editor : Not clear here: are they skipping Phase 1 ???
Early stage drug testing, known as Phase 1, is normally done in healthy volunteers to check whether a drug is safe. Only later is the drug tested on people with the disease.  By using ill patients, such as with Muckle-Wells sufferers, Novartis hopes to find out more quickly whether a drug works, and save money by terminating studies if results are negative.
Another colon cancer drug, known as PTK/ZK, which Novartis is developing jointly with a German company, Schering, suffered a setback this year when trials failed to reach statistical significance
Editor: Only 50 % ....... ?????
 Trials are ongoing and the drug has a "50 percent chance" of making it to the market, Vasella said


US shows its muscle in the pharmaceutical industry


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