Hope To The End

WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS ..surveillance, monitoring, control, arrest, target
www.ask.com ..........www.wikipedia.com

PAN = Personal Area Networks

WPAN = Wireless Personal Networks

How Motes Work

ZIGBEE Alliance , Wireless Networking
ZigBee Tutorial

ZigBee defines the network, security, and application framework profile layers for an IEEE 802.15.4-based system. ZigBee's network layer supports three networking topologies: star, mesh, and cluster tree.
1. Star networks are common and provide for very long battery life operation.
2. Mesh, or peer-to-peer, networks enable high levels of reliability and scalability by providing more than one path through the network.
3. Cluster-tree networks use a hybrid star/mesh topology that combines the benefits of both for high levels of reliability and support for battery-powered nodes
Control Products
Software Technologies Group STG
Intec Automation http://www.stg.com/wireless/STG_Release_Intec%20ZigBee_2005-September.pdf

Insect Cyborgs
The Montana system uses lidar - a laser-based radar system - to locate the clouds of specially conditioned bees that cluster above mines when they are released into a minefield.
The solicitation envisages the implanted device as a “platform” onto which “various microsystem payloads can be mounted ... with the goal of controlling insect locomotion, sens[ing] local environment, and scaveng[ing] power”.
“Possible methods of locomotion control may be sensory manipulation, direct muscle interface, or neural interface to the insect,” says the document, known as a Broad Agency Announcement.

SPECKS ( NODES / sensors, processors, memory )
This vision is of a future ubiquitous technological world, where grain-sized (ie millimetre cubed) semiconductor 'specks' or 'nodes' are invisibly distributed within our environments. Sensing, computing and communicating wirelessly, these tiny specks collaborate as programmable computational networks called 'specknets'.

According to Dr DK Arvind, Director of the Institute for Computing Systems Architecture at the University of Edinburgh
[ Ed: Scotland]
and one of the UK's leading advocates of speckled computing, specks provide the possibility of seamless integration between the material and digital world. Arvind is one of the key players within the SpeckNet Consortium, a multidisciplinary research marriage between five Scottish universities. The consortium brings together physicists, electronic engineers and computer scientists, who work alongside artists and application developers, with the aim of co-creating and pushing forward the next generation of specks and Specknets.

Each speck has a sensor, its own processor and memory capability. This gives the specks a kind of 'computational aura', which can pick up information from the environment. Collaborating with other local specks, the data gathered is acted upon. Depending on the application, the specks can be programmed to read a variety of information. Working together the specks are powerful enough to create new forms of pervasive computing.... Other important issues around speck-based computing are the ethical and social implications of pervasive technology.

DK Arvind and KJ Wong, KJ Speckled Computing: Disruptive Technology for Networked Information Appliances'. www.specknet.org/publications/Steven4_ICSE04.pdf. Retrieved 13 December 2005
Specknet vs. reg. sensor ntwrk http://www.specknet.org/publications/Steven1_ICITA05.pdf

Specks will be minute (around 1 mm3) semiconductor grains that can sense and compute locally and communicate wirelessly. Each speck will be autonomous, with its own captive, renewable energy source. Thousands of specks, scattered or sprayed on the person or surfaces, will collaborate as programmable computational networks called Specknets.
Rather, data sensing and information processing capabilities will fragment and disappear into everyday objects and the living environment
Crossbow Technology Inc: www.xbow.com (Rt bar "Dust" Video ( sound only )
Dust Networks: www.dustnetworks.com/flash-index.shtml

The Wireless Vineyard :Intel ( shows pictures )

WSN Wireless Sensor Networks

WSN Berkely, CA; Arvind
The California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Calit2),
'California is interested in using WSNs to optimise use of scarce resources such as water and energy', says Dr Arvind.
'With sensors in their fields, for example, farmers could be alerted to the right time to irrigate their land'.
Also being explored is the potential of WSN in assisted-living applications, based on the use of sensors to monitor people's daily routines and confirm that all is well

And sensor implants could monitor all the major circulatory systems in your body, providing early warning of impending flu or cancer.This article is based on one which appeared in Global Watch, the monthly magazine of the DTI Global Watch Service.

For those new to the area, a WSN is a network of wireless, distributed sensing devices, with a tiered computing architecture. WSN devices are typically low-powered radio devices with sensing and communication capabilities. The sensing devices used in WSN tend to be very small computers that include a battery, radio communicators, microcontroller and, depending on the application, the relevant sensor (eg temperature, pressure etc).
The sensors form nodes or micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), which generally can self-organise and communicate with each other.

WSN represent what has been referred to as the 'third paradigm' of computing, where technology is seamlessly and invisibly embedded within our environments, thus it becomes ubiquitous and pervasive.

Semi-passive rfid and sensors

SENSOR MOTES ( very good illustrations)
A sensor network consists of many spatially distributed sensors called nodes, these nodes are used to monitor or detect various kinds of changes in vibration, pressure, movement or pollutant levels. These nodes are usually small and inexpensive in order to allow them to be deployed on a large scale. These are sensors usually have a wireless link which can be used to extract the information captured by the sensor.

A sensor node has a small microcontroller, and an energy source, usually a battery. In order to meet the objective of the sensors being small and low-cost, resources in terms of energy, memory, computational speed and bandwidth are severely constrained. The sensors use each other to transport data to a monitoring entity. Because each sensor has a limited energy supply, sensors must conserve their energy if the network is to last a long time. Wireless, database technology such as queries, and networking technology especially, multi-hop routing protocols to communicate with other nodes is crucial technologies. Wireless technology is used in a type of network, a wireless sensor
Zigbee is a wireless protocol used by Motorola in home control systems. The networks need be able to self-organize. The same type of aggregate data with variances needs to be grouped and fused into a single datum for intelligent interpretation. Major limitations included limited storage and power. A special node which connects to a computer and outside the network is called the gateway node.

Sensor networks involve technologies from three related areas: sensing, communication, and computation (hardware, software, and algorithm).  Lately a lot of research work has been done in all of these fields to make sensor nodes more intelligent and useful.

Mica Motes
The sensors used in this project are the newest generation of UC Berkeley motes, called Mica, and communicate with each other via radio signals sent at 40 kilobytes per second. David Culler, computer science professor at UC Berkeley and director of the Intel Research Berkeley laboratory, worked with UC Berkeley graduate students to develop the sensor boards and networking software for the Mica motes
The motes in the burrows can run continuously on two AA batteries for six months, while the relay sensor - which consumes more power - is rigged to a solar panel.
Biologists also have the flexibility of moving the sensors around to where they are needed most. "The network is self-organizing," said Culler. "The nodes will automatically search for signals from neighboring networks and adapt to changes in position."

At the end of the field season in November 2002, well over 1 million readings had been logged from 32 motes deployed on the island. Each mote has a microcontroller, a low-power radio, memory and batteries. For habitat monitoring , we added sensors for temperature, humidity, barometric pressure,
and mid-range infrared. Motes periodically sample and relay their sensor readings to computer base stations on the island. These in turn feed into a satellite link that allows researchers to access real-time environmental data over the Internet.

In June 2003, we deployed a second generation network with 56 nodes. The network was augmented in July 2003 with 49 additional nodes and again in August 2003 with over 60 more burrow nodes and 25 new weather station nodes. These nodes form a multihop network transferring their data back "bucket brigade" style through dense forest. Some nodes are more than 1000 feet deep in the forest providing data through a low power wireless transceiver.

This research has been made possible with support from the Henry Luce Foundation, the in-kind donation of equipment and expertise from the Intel Corporation.
http://www.coe.berkeley.edu/forefront/fall2003/petrels.html (in redwood trees )

MoteLab -- ( Harvard) helps you set up your own sensing network
Atmel ATMEGA128L processor running at 7.3MHz, 128KB of read-only program memory

Roadside Motes --Magnetometer ( shows weaving on the road )

Motes / Sensors http://www.civildata.com/motes/sensors.html

EmberNet is a low frequency self-organizing, self-healing wireless embedded networking platform supporting the forthcoming ZigBee network standard. It produces networks that are reliable, flexible, secure, and easy to use. EmberNet contains support for mesh-, star-, and hybrid-networks. It can be used to monitor, manage and secure everything
Ember's device-networking technology

Embernet for the Home ; Bob Metcalf

IDTech Expo (lots of info ) Active rfid applications

How ETHERNET works ...one cable ( localized networking)
The original Ethernet described communication over a single cable shared by all devices on the network. Once a device attached to this cable, it had the ability to communicate with any other attached device. This allows the network to expand to accommodate new devices without requiring any modification to those devices already on the network


Wireless Bluetooth, connecting electronic devices

Arm power for gadgets

Wearable electronics

TINY OS ( operating system )

Enterprise Network Security
In a typical enterprise network, the traffic flowing between routers constitutes a massive data set. Intel researchers are applying sophisticated statistical models to extract patterns from such data, to identify "normal" traffic patterns so that anomalies, such as worms or denial-of-service attacks, can be quickly detected. The ultimate goal is to enable designers to create more secure, efficient and reliable enterprise networks. The research is being carried out in collaboration with UC Berkeley, Boston University and the University of Paris.

Cell Phone with CDMA, Bluetooth, GPS, Wi-Fi ( many photos; medical sensors)

Various Sensors ( Humidity, heat, light, pressure, magnetometer, accelerometer etc.)
transceiver, microcontroller


What is a sensor ?

Wireless news

Local area network LAN

Access points www.belkin.com

A wireless personal area network (WPAN) technology from the Bluetooth Special Interest Group ( www.bluetooth.com ) founded in 1998 by Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba. Bluetooth is an open standard for short-range transmission of digital voice and data that supports point-to-point and multipoint applications. Some of the first Bluetooth applications have been for cellphones, providing a wireless connection to a headset and to an automobile's audio system for hands-free operation. See WPAN.

IrDA Infrared Data Assoc.
(Infrared Data Association, Walnut Creek, CA, www.irda.org ) A membership organization founded in 1993 and dedicated to developing standards for wireless, infrared transmission systems between computers. With IrDA ports, a laptop or PDA can exchange data with a desktop computer or use a printer without a cable connection. IrDA requires line-of-sight transmission like a TV remote control. IrDA products began to appear in 1995. The LaserJet 5P was one of the first printers with a built-in IrDA port.

Infrared Detection ( at night ; sees heat / radiation )

WalMart sensor-networks

Hitachi employs ZigBee sensors

Iridium -- LEO satellite : GlobalStar

Salvation http://hopetotheend.com/sal.html

Bible www.blueletterbible.org