Hope To The End

SENSORS ..... Remote Sensing Device . .. AUDIO Surveillance

Keywords: nanotechnology, Alien Technology, electronic sensors, environmental sensors, relays, contacts,voltage input, "ad-hoc" networks and technology, nodes, multihop ad-hoc network,
[ Ed: "multihop" sort of reminds you of "frogs" in Rev. 16:13, 14 ]
mesh networking, motes, smart dust, IEEE 802.15.4, motion detection, Wi - Max

The definition of "Ad hoc" ...."
for this purpose "
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad_hoc

All about sensors
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensor



Components http://www.wsdmag.com/Files/32/8843/Figure_01.gif

Intelligent Sensor Technology
X-Change Corporation, through its wholly owned subsidiary, AirGATE Technologies, Inc. is a leader in unique, vertical market applications utilizing RFID and wireless, intelligent sensor technology. AirGATE Technologies, a full-solution company, handles business assessment, technology selection, including proprietary AirGATE technology, integration and support. The Company has, in an environment of technology cost compression, built a stable of technology partners that are best in class and span a wide range of solutions to support small, medium and large enterprises
Please visit www.airgatetech.com or www.x-changecorp.com for further information.
http://home.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/index.jsp?ndmViewId=news_view&newsId=20070419005552&newsLang=en
Digital Energy -- AirGATE will demonstrate its surface acoustic wave (SAW) and ultra wideband (UWB) technology
Michael L. Sheriff
http://home.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/index.jsp?ndmViewId=news_view&newsId=20070410005830&newsLang=en

Tags with sensors dropped from helicopters --"sensor tags" + mesh networking
"In the event of an earthquake or tsunami that destroys the local telecommunications infrastructure, RFID sensor tags could be sprinkled from helicopters
These tags would be equipped with integrated sensors to detect heat and vibration; once deployed, they could be read at intervals by aircraft passing close overhead. In this way, it might be possible to quickly locate people still left alive
http://ubiks.net/local/blog/jmt/archives3/005167.html
http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Science-Fiction-News.asp?NewsNum=574

Sensors in smart clothes --- sensing and heating
Jonathan Engel and Chang Liu at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, made their chain mail using manufacturing techniques borrowed from the microchip industry. First, they deposited a patterned layer of light-sensitive material to create a mould of interlinking gaps. Then they filled these gaps with copper metal. Several repetitions of these steps created the finished links
It also readily conducts electricity.
The researchers were motivated to find flexible materials in which electronic sensors could be embedded, Liu told New Scientist.

Microchip-scale electronic components could perhaps also one day be built directly into the links of the chain-mail, Liu says. The manufacturing technique employed should make this feasible. And this would allow sensors, communications or power components to be completely embedded within fully flexible fabrics
http://www.newscientisttech.com/article/dn11220-microscopic-chainmail-could-link-wearable-gadgets.html

NYC heavy surveillance
mesh networking ( web-enabled ) ... data-tracking ...
New York will install 1,000 surveillance cameras and 3,000 motion sensors in its sprawling network of subways and commuter rail stations as part of a $212 million security upgrade announced Tuesday
The security upgrades will be made to subway stations, bridges and tunnels operated by the MTA, and the Metro-North and Long Island Railroad commuter lines. None of the devices will be deployed in train cars or buses.

Sophisticated computer software will be used to integrate information from the system and link it to new MTA police department mobile command centers, Lapp said. For example, alarms will be set off at the command centers if the system detects an unattended package on a subway platform
http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20050823/ap_on_re_us/nyc_transit_security;_ylt=Arsew100Od6N7Ev1c.tnuVSs0NUE;_ylu=X3oD
MTA3MjBwMWtkBHNlYwM3MTg-

WSN Wireless Sensor Networks -- sends signals and transmit info ; monitors body functions
"Low power mesh networking, sensing and real-time location is a combination whose time has come."
"With data embedded in the tag, we have a unique identifier, allowing us to manage our inventory more efficiently than ever before," Elzinga said.
improved customer service through a methodology that IBM calls "sense-and-respond information management

Using embedded miniature antennae, the RFID tags send bits of essential stored information as signals to a receiver that reads and forwards the information to a server
RFID tags can be read at any angle and from a distance
Environmental and physiological Actuators
Offering much more info than simple RFID, sensors can monitor and record conditions like temperature, humidity, pressure, wind direction and speed, illumination intensity, vibration intensity, sound intensity, power-line voltage, chemical concentrations, pollutant levels and vital body functions," explained Kelly Sims, speaking for the IBM Software Group.

"Actuators can send and receive real-time data from the sensors -- sometimes thousands of them -- to learn about remote conditions and locations. And when sensors and actuators are mixed with RFID, well, then some pretty gee-whiz applications are created."

First of all, the ability to rapidly deploy a multi-hop network (RFID is single hop only) allows WSNs to be used in a number of ad hoc/temporary situations -- such as emergency response, defense, business and safety applications -- where tuning the deployment environment is either impossible or impractical," he continued.
http://www.technewsworld.com/story/wireless/55492.html


From the newswire -- free educational use

Sensors for audio surveillance -
--Mic-on-a-chip
Akustica www.akustica.com foresees a vast market not only for its silicon microphones, but also for CMOS MEMS sensor technology across the board. It trademarked the term "Sensory Silicon" to describe a platform upon which monolithic analog and digital sensory systems will be built to hear, speak, and sense the world around them.
The company envisions CMOS MEMS that can deliver accelerometers, gyroscopes, RF components, signal-processing ICs, and microphones for voiceinput chips, hybrid sensors, acoustic portals to the wireless Internet, and smart microphone arrays. http://www.elecdesign.com/Articles/Index.cfm?ArticleID=12361&pg=2

Future: Advanced Smart Card with key pad

Advanced smart cards are capable of many sophisticated functions, such as displaying data, enabling users to enter Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) and passwords, and detecting security threats. These next generation smart cards are developing as the basis for new smart card capabilities and applications. For example, a smart card equipped with a battery, data display, and keypad would enable users to view:
their current balance of electronic purse applications,
recent credit card transaction information,
or bank account balance information.
These capabilities could also be utilized to enhance security with password-enabled credit card functions
http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2005_March_24/ai_n13469997

Ed: "eclipse" means to cover over; therefore making hidden; "occult" also means "hidden"

POWERED CARDS
( added to the already computerized smart cards are : sensors, antenna and batteries )
Ed: Sandwiching in more surreptitious surveillance
Innovatier uses multiple layers to complete the packaging scheme. The top and bottom printed overlays encase the inner core that can contain electronics. Its superior methods embed electronic components such as antennas, sensors and batteries into powered cards or tags. This process produces a highly durable elastomeric core utilizing proprietary reaction injected molding, which can be tailored to the cards' performance for optimum durability and security.
Eclipse Laboratories, headquartered in Bloomington, Minn
Innovatier offers superior packaging solutions for active RFID and powered cards
In addition, the process has the capability of realizing any 3-dimensional shape.[ Ed: hologram ? ]
Innovatier - Endless Possibilities Limited Only by The Imagination™
http://www.emediawire.com/releases/2006/12/emw492284.htm

This injecting process allows inclusion of a number of fragile electronic components such as flexible display LEDs
[ Ed:
can display a 3 digit number] , push-buttons, batteries, antennae, speakers[ Ed: capable of audio surveillance] , microchips and other electronic components [ Ed: biometrics] into cards or tags.
http://www.innovatier.com/packaging.htm <<<< Please see GRAPHIC
www.innovatier.com

VISA : powered cards for financial uses
Powered cards can incorporate value-added capabilities such as displays, dynamic account information, authentication services, light and sound. They work by embedding a tiny battery into the plastic card. Visa has demonstrated various product possibilities using the technology and has been working to identify how it can potentially be used commercially. This has included evaluating display cards with one-time passcode authentication capabilities. With a display card, a cardholder presses a button on the card to display a numerical one-time passcode, generated by an algorithm programmed into the card, for online authentication. Using the passcode, the issuer can verify that the person interacting with the bank is actually in possession of the card
http://www.huliq.com/950/visa-announces-test-requirements-for-powered-cards

Chip has 28 layers
A state-of-the-art microprocessor chip could have 28 levels, and the relative position of any two targets must be determined with a precision of only a nanometer or two. Because the dimensions of chip features are already dwarfed by the wavelength of visible light
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/12/061209083946.htm

150 nanometers ( nm) exchanging light-signals
First, rows of rectangular features are etched into a particular type of silicon wafer in which atoms are arranged in a regular lattice design. The features are about 150 nm high, arrayed in sets of six features, each with a different width. The lattice has extremely even edges, but NIST modified the etching process to make the sides of the features even smoother, which helped to improve measurement precision.
Using four different types of microscopesoptical, scanning electron (SEM), atomic force (AFM), and high-resolution scanning transmission microscopes (HRTEM) the silicon reference features are first screened to identify those with the approximate right dimensions, and then very carefully measured. A key step in the calibration process involves passing a beam of electrons through the silicon lines to a detector. Alternating dark and light parallel lines on the detector mark where columns of silicon atoms diffract the electrons
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/02/050225105026.htm


Tracking by sensors, scanners and monitors


Graphic created by Bill Lane < click


Raytheon is making possible "automatic target recognition" from manned or unmanned spacecraft to target ground movement . It will be operated remotely "stand off location"
http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/dailybreeze/access/872045011.html?dids=872045011:872045011&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Jul+
22%2C+2005&author=Muhammed+El-Hasan+DAILY+BREEZE&desc=Raytheon+gets+military+contract

Verichip 's goal : to implant sensors ( not available yet )
A Florida company is developing an implantable, sensor-spangled microchip that can communicate the wearer's location, pulse, body temperature and other data.
Now, the company is toiling to combine the two products, to take the technology “beyond the watch and pager device to a technology that can be implanted under the skin, similar to the technology of a pacemaker,” said Keith Bolton, the company’s chief technology officer..
.Another sensor passes along body-temperature information.
In development are sensors that will send vital sign information like pulse, blood oxygen and glucose levels, Bolton said
Taking advantage of MEMS technology has been key to the success of Digital Angel, said Peter Zhou, the company’s chief scientist.
To date, the company used MEMS technology in the construction of the Digital Angel chip. It’s also the backbone of a sensor that measures acceleration.
“When you move, you accelerate, and this chip measures it,” he said.

Already, ADS’s Verichip, which is a simple microchip without sensors or GPS components, has stirred some Christian groups, who see the implantable chip as the “mark of the beast,” a prophecy in the Bible that a future evil dictator [ Ed: global policy maker ] will separate his supporters from his detractors by some identifying symbol.
http://www.smalltimes.com/print_doc.cfm?doc_id=3327

NAFTA Super Highway 35 ( Texas to Minnesota ) heavily dotted with sensors
Capable of reading anything with an rfid tag
As WND previously reported, Savi Networks is currently negotiating a contract with North America's SuperCorridor Coalition, Inc., NASCO, the Dallas-based trade organization that advocates developing continental trade corridors along Interstates 35, 29 and 94. The contract will allow Savi Networks to establish sensors along the super-corridor that would read RFID tags placed on containers transported by truck and train, including containers from China and the Far East which enter the North American continent at Mexican ports, including Lazaro Cárdenas on the Pacific.
http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=53287

Swallowing sensors for core body temperatures telemetry

http://www.medgadget.com/archives/2005/07/remote_temperat.html

Sensors: telling everything about you; every move you make; vital signs etc.
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/08/08/BUG7PE2HL01.DTL

Cyberkinetics --
BrainGate : sensors that convert thought to computer signals ( action)
technologies that bond human tissue with man-made materials

http://home.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/index.jsp?ndmViewId=news_view&newsId=20050822005405&newsLang=en

Old age in the technology age
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2005/08/08/BUG7PE2HL01.DTL&type=printable

Sensium medical ( health) monitoring sensors
The Sensium is compatible with a range of sensors and can be configured to detect vital signs such as ECG, blood oxygen and glucose, body temperature, and even motion and mobility. With the ability to wirelessly transmit 'problem' event data to network nodes, these locally intelligent sensor interface devices provide a new way of monitoring and treatment of chronic conditions.
http://www.eetuk.com/tech/news/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=166403626

Millimeter Wave" sees through walls, clothing
hyperspectral sensor ... detects one's aura ..emotional state
http://www.engadget.com/entry/1234000763036414/
and
http://www.qinetiq.com/home_us/case_studies/case_studies_homeland_security/millimeter_wave_imager.html


VeriWise
Telematics is a term used to describe the integration of wireless communications with vehicle sensor-based monitoring systems and location devices.
http://home.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/index.jsp?ndmViewId=news_view&newsId=20050517006217&newsLang=en



Foot sensors
http://www.research.ibm.com/ecvg/misc/footprint.html

Rocks in the Wilderness as SENSORS

The disguised sensors ( ED : camouflaged ) can be dropped from an aircraft and used to help detect the sound of approaching enemy combatants, the London Financial Times has reported.
The devices, which would be no larger than a golf ball, could be ready for use in about 18 months, the paper said. They use tiny silicon chips and radio frequency identification, or
RFID, technology that is so sensitive that it can detect the sound of a human footfall at 20 feet to 30 feet.
RFID technology uses radio signals that are sent from a silicon chip to
a remote sensing device.
http://science.monstersandcritics.com/news/article_1002871.php/U.S._military_develops_tiny_sensors_disguised_as_rocks

GRAPHIC : Wilderness Tracking
hopetotheend.com/tracking.html

SEA-LABS ...Coral Reef Sensors

http://currents.ucsc.edu/04-05/05-30/project.asp

U.S. Army uses rocks as sensors
http://washingtontimes.com/upi-breaking/20050527-052302-1298r.htm

Networked Sensors at our borders
Bluetooth and 802.11b standards, are making it possible to extend the range of perception of patrol units and reduce the number of personnel needed for effective coverage. These self-organizing, self-healing, "ad-hoc networks" mix various sensors as needed, from GPS through seismic, video, infrared and biometric, and can be deployed cheaply over wide areas of wilderness or coastline
http://www.sarnoff.com/products_services/government_solutions/homeland_security/networked_sensors.asp



Hall Sensors http://lmis3.epfl.ch/research/track/

Sensor systems and robots .."Urbie"
http://people.howstuffworks.com/robot5.htm

Nano grass and nano pores
http://www.redherring.com/Article.aspx?a=12165&hed=Bell+Labs+Looks+to+Nanotech&sector=Industries&subsector=Biosciences


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www.news.com.com

Dust networks
http://www.dust-inc.com/technology/performance.html

Electronic Dust networking
http://www.heise.de/english/newsticker/news/63189

Star mesh network datapath
http://www.machinedesign.com/ASP/viewSelectedArticle.asp?strArticleId=57796&strSite=MDSite&Screen=CURRENTISSUE&CatID=3

Motes and GPS
http://computer.howstuffworks.com/mote3.htm

MICA mote
All of these hardware components together create a MICA mote. A programmer writes software to control the mote and make it perform a certain way. Software on MICA motes is built on an operating system called TinyOS. TinyOS is helpful because it deals with the radio and power management systems for you and makes it much easier to write software for the mote
http://computer.howstuffworks.com/mote4.htm

Motes and Smart Dust ................. ( edit > select all ) in order to read the material
http://users4.ev1.net/~taragem/motes.htm

Multi-hopping
http://www.dust-inc.com/technology/performance.html

Freedom4Wireless
http://www.freedom4wireless.com/2004/view.php?technology|inbrief

Mesh Networking
http://www.motorola.com/governmentandenterprise/northamerica/en-us/public/functions/browseproduct/productservices.aspx?navigationpath=id_804i

Diagram : Mesh networking and Nodes
The beauty of using a wireless link for onboard monitoring and notification is that the link is independent of the control loop. By using a wireless, multihop mesh network, data can be routed dynamically to similar wireless devices.
http://www.sensorsmag.com/articles/0203/38/main.shtml

Mesh Networking and Wi - Max ...networking whole cities
http://www.lightreading.com/document.asp?doc_id=82130&WT.svl=news2_2

BelAir50 mesh networking and Wi- Fi
The BelAir50c is a single-radio platform combining Wi-Fi access and wireless mesh backhaul in an environmentally hardened, outdoor enclosure. It can be deployed in distinct mesh clusters for small networks or as coverage extension at the edge of larger mesh networks. The BelAir50c integrates seamlessly with the multi-radio BelAir200 and the two-radio BelAir100 to form a complete, integrated solution for large metro-scale Wi-Fi networks.
Our experience has shown that most large networks are not uniform. They have mixed requirements," said Phil Belanger, VP of marketing for BelAir Networks. "They need comprehensive Wi-Fi coverage throughout a large area with some areas requiring higher capacity or voice support. With the addition of the low-cost BelAir50c, we are making it easier for our customers to design networks that offer the best of both worlds: lowest cost of coverage and high performance access at a cost that is less than alternative options."
http://home.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/index.jsp?ndmViewId=news_view&newsId=20051011005196&newsLang=en
www.belairnetworks.com.
www.the451group.com.

IC and sensors
Halls have eyes
FREIBURG, Germany, May 24 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Micronas (SWX Swiss Exchange: MASN), http://www.micronas.com/home/index.html a leading supplier of innovative application-specific IC system solutions for consumer and automotive electronics, presents the new Hall sensor family HAL(R) 2xy. The new sensors are designed for accurate contactless detection of positions and speed in automotive, industrial and consumer applications
The new Hall sensor family is designed for applications in which position detection is required. In the automotive sector, the HAL 2xy is used for position detection of power windows, sliding roofs, hatchback, foot pedal, fan control and many more applications. Industrial application examples include flow measurement, end-position detection and rotational speed measurement. In white goods, the Hal 2xy is ideal for position detection tasks, for example in washing machines and the new induction cookers
http://sev.prnewswire.com/computer-electronics/20060524/SFW08724052006-1.html

Sensor with transmitter

The unit's wireless transmitter will send a signal up to 300m outdoors or 30m indoors.
To ensure dependable communication, STM250's suite of sophisticated RF protocols includes multiple broadcasts, fast datarates, error detection and unique addressing
Packed into a small 110 x 19 x 15mm device - similar to a standard doorbell - the STM250 is a solar-powered, magnet-contact sensor combined with an embedded RF transmitter
http://www.electronicstalk.com/news/eno/eno102.html

Interconnecting sensors for transmission
Avago Technologies has introduced what it claims is the industry's fastest 3.3V/5V CMOS-compatible optocoupler, capable of transmitting data at 25MBd.

This speed makes it suitable for high-speed, data-line transmission applications, such as those in industrial networking, including PROFIBUS and DeviceNet. These fieldbus networks, which interconnect sensors, actuators and controllers, typically need isolation at each interface location to increase data integrity and provide protection from power faults and ground-loop
http://neasia.nikkeibp.com/dailynewsdetail/004207

Walking-energy to energize sensors all around us
..... powering wireless sensor networks, laptops and mobile phones.
The concept was pioneered by the military sector, largely bankrolled by the DARPA in the United States (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency).
Their interest is mainly in reducing the need for soldiers to carry heavy rechargeable batteries that serve essential yet power-hungry communication devices. So they've looked at how "heel-strike" generators, powered through the pumping motion of a footstep, can be embedded within a boot heel. These devices currently achieve upwards of 3 - 6 watts of power output.
Already there are skis and tennis rackets that incorporate a "piezoelectric" material (which produces an electrical charge when stress is applied to them)
These could be wired into a central computer to alert it when windows have been left open or lights left on at the end of the day, and so switch them off.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/5009358.stm

Sensors that give off signals
At Intel, meanwhile, researchers are looking at ways to let radio-frequency identification tags exploit energy from RFID readers to perform additional tasks. Currently, when a reader is directed at a tag, the tag typically responds by spitting out a serial number. But by inserting a capacitor or other device that can capture energy into the tag, the stored energy could be used to power a temperature sensor or an accelerometer. If someone tried to walk off with a crate, a motion sensor could send a distress signal across the network to security. It could then be periodically recharged with a quick blast.

"You can imagine a moisture sensor. You could embed it into a building and literally never have to get at it again," said Joshua Smith of Intel Research Seattle. "Frozen foods are a big one. Security is another. Another one I heard of is blood. Blood plasma has to be kept at a certain temperature." ....
Sensors could also be embedded in walls to help identify intruders or, as some privacy advocates worry, spy on people.

Intel's WISP--or Wireless Sensing and Identification Platform

Intel's WISP--or Wireless Sensing and Identification Platform--

We're getting down to the point where the actual performance of (extremely low-end) computers is getting close to the thermodynamic limits," Smith said. "Microcontrollers have gotten so low with their energy requirements we can now power a general purpose microcontroller off an RFID reader. Compared to all power sources, an RFID reader is a relatively easy case."
One of the first WISPs that Smith developed was a chip that could tell when a lid on a box was opened.
Since then, he has developed an activity/motion sensor as well as a light sensor that can detect different levels of light (not just darkness versus light). In one experiment, a light sensor hung from a suction cup on his window delivered information about light coming through the window over a 12-hour period. However, it did so without external electricity or batteries. http://news.com.com/Sensors+Living+off+scraps+of+energy/2100-11395_3-6076273.html

Sensors living off scraps of energy
Professor Zhong Lin Wang at the Georgia Institute of Technology has devised a sensor that can harvest mechanical energy and convert it into electricity. Embedded in the boot of a soldier, for instance, the sensor could conceivably gather energy when its wearer walks and use that energy to charge batteries for a radio or flashlight, for example.
The sensors devised by Georgia Tech's Wang derive their energy from zinc oxide nanowires. When the wires are bent by a probe, a negative charge is created on the side of the wire that gets stretched (the outside surface) while a positive charge builds on the compressed inside surface of the wire due to what is known as the piezoelectric effect. The charge builds at the point of contact between the probe and the wire. When the wire is relaxed, an electrical current can be detected. Although the wire continues to vibrate, current only gets discharged at the moment the strain gets relieved
http://news.com.com/Could+perpetual+motion+machines+become+a+reality/2100-11395_3-6076273.html


Salvation hopetotheend.com/sal.html

Bible
www.blueletterbible.org