Hope To The End .........Mobile Phone Stalking

Translation http://www.google.com/language_tools?hl=en (all languages)


Integrated Circuit chip ( miniature computer )
contactless-payment.co.uk


NFC Near Field Communication :
BOTH: (1) RFID ( active ( battery ) and passive simultaneously; readers embedded )
and (2) an
IC chip ( integrated circuit; a mini computer )
(
can be read from 8 inches away ...20cm); 24 / 7 monitoring : It is a transformer and eavesdropper

NFC similar to Bluetooth
NFC stands for "near field communication." It's a wireless technology similar to Bluetooth, but with a much shorter range — about an inch and a half or less. That short range is the key benefit. A wireless technology very short range means that you can control what you connect with, without having to plug anything in.
http://itmanagement.earthweb.com/features/article.php/3934526/NFC-Google-Wants-Your-Wallet-And-Thats-a-Good-Thing

NFC explained ( good explanation )
"NFC is interesting because it is a peer-to-peer communication protocol [a communication model in which devices link directly to each other, without the intervention of any intermediary device or system], enabling two [RFID] cards to talk, while also simultaneously being an *active* and passive RFID solution,” says Erik Michielsen, a director at ABI Research, which is based in Oyster Bay, N.Y. Since all devices are equipped with built-in RFID readers, two-way communication is possible Depending on the type of NFC device, data transfer rates will be 106, 212, or 424 kbps.
To make this work, an NFC chip embedded in a phone can act as an RFID reader when the phone is on and a passive smart label or RFID tag when the phone is off. NFC chips can hold 64 to 128 bits of memory Data, which would be likely to include an identification number initially, would be encrypted before it is transmitted.

The lithium ion batteries within a cell phone or other device will provide power needed for the tag’s active operation. Therefore, the active tag would not require its own internal power source. Rather, it would draw power from device’s battery.
http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/1020/1/1

VIDEO : Cashless Society is Possible [ must view ]
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7309503.stm

VIDEO : Phone for financial transactions [ good report ]
http://endtimes.punt.nl/?id=530625&r=1&tbl_archief

Cashless Society
www.bbc.co.uk/penny

System-on-Chip http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System-on-a-chip

Mobile Payments
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7850945.stm

Text banking for the poor
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7870279.stm

A Day Without Cash --VIDEO
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7883135.stm

What is NFC?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near_Field_Communication


Ed: note the emitting and receiving radio waves ( rfid active and passive ) ; a continuous monitoring transformer .
--- hotcellularphone


Toshiba's USIM card ; mobile phone payments with IC integrated circuit chip ( mini computer smart card )
http://hotcellularphone.com/handsets/usim-card-compatible-with-nfc-mobile-phones-developed-by-toshiba/

Another explanation :
"NFC is a standards-based, short-range wireless connectivity technology that enables simple
two-way interactions
among electronic devices (such as digital cameras, mobile phones, PDAs and computers) allowing consumers to perform contactless transactions, access digital content and connect devices with a single touch.
NFC also simplifies set-up of longer-range wireless technologies, such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.

NFC technology evolved from a combination of contactless identification and interconnection technologies.
NFC operates in the 13.56 MHz frequency range, over a typical distance of a few centimetres. The underlying layers of NFC technology are ISO, ECMA, and ETSI standards.

NFC technology is supported by the leading mobile device, infrastructure and technology manufacturers and by all major payment providers, and it is compatible with millions of contactless cards already in use worldwide.
According to ABI Research by 2009, 50 per cent of all mobile handsets will be NFC-enabled.
"
http://www.rfidsolutionsonline.com/content/news/article.asp?docid=%7BAEB4B131-E9DA-49CE-B030-54150F5716C2%7D

Technorati Forum http://technorati.com/tag/nfc

Sony www.sony.net


From the Newswire; fair educational use


NFC mobile pay techtree

Bling Nation in Colorado
Deducts from bank account
The application enables a consumer to employ an adhesive RFID label attached to his or her mobile phone, to pay for local purchases at approximately 60 area merchants. The transaction cost is deducted from the customer's bank account, and a receipt and account balance update are sent as a text message to the individual's phone, all in a matter of seconds.
http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/5132/1/1/

International Telecommunications Union; a UN agency

Mobile phone wallets
"Squeezing the contents of a person's purse into a phone relies mostly on a technology called near-field communication, which allows any enabled device to communicate with a cash register or subway turnstile through a secure radio frequency.
When a phone is enabled with near-field communication technology, shoppers can load bank and credit card information onto their phones and then scan them to buy goods at the grocery store, gas station, subway or any other place set up to read the device.
Doug Brown, head of mobile product development at Bank of America, said the idea is popular with consumers because it simplifies their lives.
"You don't need cash anymore. You don't need your wallet. That's really the endgame here, is that we can replace the physical wallet and all of the cash needs and the plastic that you're using today," he said.

Eye scans and fingerprints [ Ed: reason for Mark of the Beast to be embedded in the forehead or right hand ; see verification ]
would make phone IDs and payments more secure, Brown said. The ID technology might work like a corporate security badge, which pulls up personal information when scanned
http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/08/13/cell.phone.wallet/index.html


Sheetz fleet cellphone payment
While one is NFC technology and one is RFID, the pundits do believe there will be a point where the two technologies merge or one goes away. From a merchant standpoint, we have the infrastructure in place to accept both. The challenge is how it plays out on the issuing side."
http://www.csnews.com/csn/news/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003998746

India's PayPass Citi Tap and Pay -- NFC contactless payment; ( Ed: 666 friendly )

"They will then be able to securely execute an Over-The-Air  download of their Citibank MasterCard credit card on to their mobile phone. Once personalised, their credit card on the phone is ready and the customers can use the phone to make Tap and Pay trasactions at locations displaying Citi Tap and Pay and MasterCrd PayPass acceptance marks, Rajashekaran said.   
Citi Tap and Pay transactions are absolutely secure and require a PIN validation. The contactless payment transactions will be automatically charged to a customer's Citibank MasterCard card account. "
http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/citi-brings-nfc-mobile-payments-to-india/66064/on
also
http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/citibank-launches-next-gen-mobile-payments-in-india/362602/

ID Cards now; subdermal chip soon
--
-- VIDEOS
" The subject of implantable microchips has vehemently left the realm of paranoia and is now a major concern as governments around the world prepare to roll out national ID cards which many fear could be replaced by mandatory implantable chips in the not too distant future."
http://www.prisonplanet.com/mtv-star-heidi-montag-over-my-dead-body-would-i-take-a-microchip.html

India to ID billions
Entrepreneur, Nandan Nilekani has been chosen to lead the ambitious project which will be the second largest citizens' database in a democracy, with
being the biggest.
'But a system of national ID cards can technically introduce a new route to citizenship.
'This could be used as a security measure by the government which leaves migrant workers, refugees and other stateless people in India in limbo without access to public services, employment and basic welfare.'
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1195916/ID-cards-India-1-1billion-citizens-second-largest-citizens-database.html
http://yro.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=09/06/28/1538221

Biochip implant
-- Julia Scheeres
" Applied Digital Solutions CEO Scott Silverman said he believes the company’s VeriChip — a subdermal microchip that uses radio frequency signals to broadcast an identification number to a scanner — could someday replace credit cards. Under Silverman’s plan, rather than swiping a bank card to make purchases, micro-chipped customers would scan themselves using special readers.
Although the biochip payment plan may strike some people as a bit X Files-ish, financial transactions using radio frequency identification, or RFID, are already commonplace in some areas. "
http://thechipinyourhand.com/2009/06/23/when-cash-is-only-skin-deep/

Just wave your implanted chip
"In their place, the world's tech savvy youngsters will be using microchip implants to communicate and transact, writes Paul McIntyre."
http://www.theage.com.au/small-business/one-wave-of-the-arm-and-its-paid-for-20090619-cpdx.html

Coca Cola vending machines to accept contactless payments
http://www.usatech.com/company_info/news/usa_2007_04_09.php

Global Paypass VIDEO
--- Global interoperability .... 666 friendly  
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VbMULwUueDg

MasterCard Paypass blurb + video top right corner
http://www.mastercard.com/us/company/en/newsroom/mc_paypass_adds_ease_and_simplicity_to_more_transactions.html

Australia going cashless with "Paypass" ( Youtube )
http://endtimes.punt.nl/?id=520003&r=1&tbl_archief ( thanks Henry V

Global Paypass "tap n' go " interoperable around the world
MasterCard Paypass here in America.
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4PRN/is_2009_March_2/ai_n31394364/

PoS Paddle Tap-It

"Instead of swiping a payment card or handing a card to a cashier, consumers simply present their debit/credit card or NFC enabled mobile phone to the PoS Paddle Tap-It and their payment is quickly processed. This contactless payment technology is being added to current Chip & PIN systems. All contactless payment acceptance devices, such as PoS Paddle Tap-It, will display the logo. The PoS Paddle Tap-It was designed to work with all retailers’ existing Chip & PIN configurations.
Paddle SafeBase
PoS Paddle SafeBase. This cleverly designed unit enables retailers to lock down their Chip & PIN devices to the counter, to prevent theft and subsequent fraud. It is the first locking/pivoting product of its type. i4 Product Design developed PoS Paddle SafeBase in such a way that it is compatible with all retailers’ existing Chip & PIN devices.
Smart Cards too
including Smart Technology Solutions (STS), an innovator in smart card solutions, which has already integrated PoS Paddle Tap-It with its market leading software for the retail sector.
http://www.tctmagazine.com/x/guideArchiveArticle.html?id=10772

NFC enables powerless rfid to connect ( Ed: verichip and smart cards can now be made communicable )
NFC—near-field communication—enables un-powered items, such as RFID tags and smart cards, to connect. That fact may open the door for contactless transactions and machine-to-machine applications
The purpose of the specs and formats is to create a modular NFC architecture, which will consist of protocols the NFC hopes will foster interoperable data exchange, as well as device-independent service delivery, device discovery and device capability.

The architecture will also define an initial set of tag formats that all compliant devices must support. The tags are based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14443 Type A and B standards and Sony’s FeliCa wireless smart card chips.
Because the chips can be used as readers or tags, two-way communication takes place without a power source. Today, most smart cards are based on ISO standards, so the contention is that many of today’s readers and smart-card applications will be compatible with NFC standards

The challenge comes in defining the workflows so that the phones can acknowledge when tickets or coupons are sent and received. That requires integration of databases among operators, financial institutions and other partners.
MasterCard also is working with a German firm, Giesecke & Devrient, to develop an over-the-air account-payment configuration for secure electronic transactions.

Other trials are taking place in Amsterdam (with Japan’s largest card issuer, JCB, and KPN), as well as in Germany (where Vodafone and a regional transportation authority will accept phones as electronic bus tickets and as loyalty cards for discounts at local retail outlets and attractions
He notes that recently NXP and Sony announced a joint venture to develop synergies between FeliCa and Mifare.
http://www.billingworld.com/secondary.cfm?page=detail&archiveId=7818

SIM card and NFC
But with mobile operators stating a clear preference for the SIM over separate embedded chips, two contacts have become one too many for the SIM’s link with NFC. That’s because the standard SIM chip offers a maximum of eight electrical contacts, which connect the chip with the electronics of the handset. Five of these contacts are already spoken for to conduct normal GSM or 3G network operations. To hook up the high-speed, USB, interface for fast data downloads between the SIM and handset would consume two more contacts. That leaves one spare electrical pad to connect the NFC chip, which in turn is attached to the short-range radio antenna
Both extend a single physical wire from the NFC chip to the SIM card reader within the electronics of the handset, linking up with what is known as the C6 electrical contact on the SIM chip.
http://www.cardtechnology.com/article.html?id=2007010358OUG6PM

RFID + NFC = TWINLINX ... Jacek Kowalski
NFC-enabled mobile phones and PDA’s. The company will develop a new generation of RFID chips based on a technology license from Inside and a family of low cost readers.
I believe that the real value of RFID will be realized when tags remain on items, which will allow to create new services and benefits for consumers. In order for this to happen, consumers will need to have a low cost and global RFID reader infrastructure which does not exist today and will be provided by the integration of NFC into mobile phones.
http://www.contactlessnews.com/news/2006/12/13/former-inside-contactless-leader-forms-twinlinx-for-nfc-and-rfid/

HF ( 13.56 MHz ) / UHF ( 866 -- 960 MHz to 3 G ) NFC
Optionally, the tag could also include a microprocessor allowing users to store data on the tag for a variety of purposes. TwinLinx's founder and CEO, Jacek Kowalski, envisions scenarios in which customers could use their NFC-enabled mobile phones to act as RFID readers and access a variety of services.
http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/2908/1/1/

PICOread Global payments
INSIDE’s PicoRead is a contactless platform used in numerous large-scale reader devices, and the world’s first contactless reader chip to support every major international standard, including ISO 14443 A & B, ISO 15693, FeliCa™. This enables PicoRead to support contactless payment transactions in all global markets and is a natural choice for terminal manufacturers who are enabling traditional and new form-factor payment terminals with contactless payments support
http://www.contactlessnews.com/news/2006/12/18/terminals-with-picoread-chips-from-inside-approved-for-chinese-pos-use/

Venyon: payment by mobile phone

Nokia Corp. and smart-card specialist Giesecke & Devrient GmbH have finalized their new near-field communication (NFC) joint venture, naming it Venyon.
Venyon is based in Helsinki, Finland, and has another office in Munich, Germany. The company plans additional locations in Dallas and Singapore.http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&taxonomyId=15&articleId=9006339&intsrc=hm_topic

Global standards for mobile NFC
--"mass market adoption"
The statement also added that the GSM Association, a global trade association for mobile network operators, is co-ordinating the NFC initiative to encourage a common approach to the implementation of NFC technology in mobile phones. One of the goals of the project,the statement added is to build on the secure billing and identity relationship operators have with their customers through the SIM card, which is situated inside the handset and contains users' unique profiles and information.
Near Field Communications (NFC) is a short range Radio Frequency (RF) communications system, typically operating over distances of less than 10cm. The NFC standard is currently under development in standardisation bodies such as the NFC Forum
and ETSI (.European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
NFC enables a range of 'contactless' applications that could open up a major new mobile market. The GSM Association, the global trade association for mobile network operators
http://allafrica.com/stories/200611250058.html
also ... Orange; Vodophone ...
http://www.itweek.co.uk/computing/news/2169411/phones-cashless-payments

Personal Info stored
The tags inside phones could have personal information stored in them and so could act as car keys, money, tickets and travel cards says the BBC.
How fast do you really want to issue financial information... here is your chance....
Mobile phones are seen as powerful tools for NFC technology because they are able to download new pieces of information - from topping up a travel card, to new songs, ticket information and electronic keycard data etc.
http://leverwealth.blogspot.com/2006/11/near-field-communication_22.html

Mobiles hope to be smart wallet
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/6168222.stm

Mobile Wallet; Mobile Commerce
As many as 25 million [ Ed: futuristic number ] mobile phone subscribers in the US could be using their handsets as mobile wallets by 2011, technology watchers have predicted.
The most frequently mentioned barrier to the mobile wallet is the fee for its use (72 per cent of respondents), followed by security concerns about losing the phone and privacy
http://www.computing.co.uk/vnunet/news/2154613/25m-mobile-phones-payments-2011

Contactless payments comes to cell phones
Applications are increasingly sophisticated and two-way. The readers can be programmed to zip coupons, ads, or other promo information to the phone while the payment is being made.
That's what the NFC Forum envisions on a global basis
(see BusinessWeek.com, 11/20/06, "Sony, NXP Team Up on Wireless Chips").

NFC-enabled phones eventually will become full-fledged electronic credit cards, just as FeliCa phones have already done in Japan, Duverne says. To allay consumer security fears and encourage uptake, this will go hand in hand with a variety of protective features. Most commonly, it will require consumers to enter a code to confirm a transaction, just as they do now with a "chip and pin" smartcard

Still, a recent joint venture between Nokia and Germany's Giesecke & Devirent, the world's second-largest maker of smartcards, may go some way toward resolving the issue because it effectively creates a third party to handle over-the-air payment instead of leaving the primary players to resolve the issue.
http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/nov2006/gb20061121_811258.htm?chan=globalbiz_europe_today's+top+story

400 million Smart Card users soon

The smart card base in India is estimated at about 70 million. This is projected to cross 400 million in the next few years, says Chirasrota Jena.
Thanks to promotions by MasterCard and Visa which introduced smart cards in the market, contact-less smart cards have become the talk of the town when it comes to payment applications. Near Field Communication (NFC) devices with embedded contactless smart card capabilities are on the way. Overall, Indian smart card usage is below that in other developed and emerging economies, but as the cost of smart cards decreases, Indian companies will increasingly invest in the technology and its solutions.

In geographical terms, Europe will remain the largest smart card market for the next five years or so, but the globalisation of the market is well underway. Smart card chips are the essential operational components of smart cards, and these also appear in cladding other than credit card-sized plastic tokens.
STMicroelectronics has traditionally been a semiconductor supplier providing chips to card manufacturers and system integrators. In the recent past ST has acquired Proton World International (PWI), a leading smart card software company that specialises in high security, payment and identification smart card systems. PWI develops smart card system software especially for e-purse; MasterCard or Visa debit and credit cards

“We are among the top three suppliers of smart card ICs in the world, and the same holds true for India as well. We are major players in GSM,
DL (driving licence), e-passport and banking applications in India. STM provides the smart card chips or modules memory and microprocessor for both contact and contactless smart cards and smart card reader ICs.”
http://www.expresscomputeronline.com/20061120/market02.shtml

Frankfurt Transit Phone : Java / nfc tag and card
" For higher-value tickets, such as monthly passes, RMV would have to wait for more NFC phones to hit the market, since it would need to store the tickets on a secure chip in the phones. It could also put these tickets on contactless smart cards. In its limited NFC rollout in Hanau, customers of mobile network operator Vodafone have purchased only 135 contactless phones since April. Most observers agree the Nokia 3220 phones, the sole NFC model available in Hanau or most anywhere else, is too old and feature poor to attract many subscribers–other than to use the Hanau contactless fare-collection service on buses. "
But when more of the contactless phones arrive, RMV is considering combining NFC with Java. It would deploy chip-based tags on signs or posters at stations. Riders would tap their NFC phones on the tags to automatically open mobile Internet sessions and make the process of buying Java tickets much easier.
http://www.cardtechnology.com/article.html?id=200610120BTVI4ZF

J/Speedy Credit Payment

Amsterdam, The Netherlands - JCB, the global payment brand, in cooperation with CCV Holland B.V., Gemalto, KPN, Nokia, NXP Semiconductors (formerly Philips Semiconductors), PaySquare, and ViVOtech, announced that they have successfully launched Mobile J/Speedy(TM), the Near Field Communication (NFC) mobile payment pilot project in Amsterdam. Following initial trials in September, the pilot service is now being rolled out to a broader group of JCB's customers. The project marks Europe's first contactless international credit payment scheme using a mobile phone with an NFC chip.
JCB has already been successful with a contactless payment solution in Japan. With this additional success in Amsterdam, I am even more confident that mobile credit payment will start taking off in the payment market."
About ViVOtech
ViVOtech (
www.vivotech.com ) is the market leader in contactless/NFC payment software, transaction management systems, and readers.
http://presszoom.com/story_118905.html

Innovision
Innovision Research and Technology Plc, a developer of Near Field Communication, NFC, silicon designs, expects the technology to be integrated into Bluetooth and WiFi chipsets, with samples of a joint Bluetooth/NFC product by the end of this year
.
http://www.cbronline.com/article_news.asp?guid=6A501DF4-05BC-4DA0-81B5-8685AB188DEC

Smart Touch  
The technologies employed in the project will bring different services literally within reach of touch; in the local catering service for the elderly of the City of Oulu, in Finland, for example, the simple act of touching a catering menu item with a mobile phone will automatically place the order and bring the selected meal directly to the home of the service user.
NFC enables the acquisition and transmission of data between the mobile device and the service system - for example, by touching an NFC tag carrying service related information, or by touching a specific reader device connected to related infrastructure on a bus or at a shop checkout.
Proximity-based data transfer ( device to device)
Another application is proximity-based data transfer, which refers to initiating data transfer by bringing a smart device (such as a mobile phone) close to another device (such as a computer, TV set, DVD player, or another mobile phone). This functionality, for example, will allow images to be transmitted from a mobile phone to a printer or to a computer for storing or further processing.
Limited Payment
The smart card used in the NFC device can be any limited-value charge card, such as a city card, a library card, a bus card, a cinema ticket, or a sports event ticket.
http://www.engineerlive.com/electronics-news/16443/touch-applications-for-mobile-devices.thtml

Billboards that speak to your mobile
At the Philips Arena, the phones electronically read data from a tiny device called a near field communication (NFC) tag embedded in the poster. The data prompted the phone to access a website containing downloadable content. What looked like a static poster then gave mobile phone users access to ringtones, wallpapers, screensavers and video clips.
http://www.ftd.de/karriere_management/business_english/111582.html

Contactless and NFC ( lots of info )
http://www.griaule.com/page/en-us/news?news=31

nfc ; Active and passive modes
; electric and magnetic fields
The two fields exchange energy and reinforce one another as they travel from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. This is called the far field.
Inside that 10 wavelengths is the near field, where you see individual electric and magnetic fields. The electric field isn't too useful, but the magnetic field can be used for short-range communications.

There are three major categories of NFC use:
1. secure transaction or payment,
2. peer-to-peer between two powered units,
3. and service discovery or information transfer

Secure transaction [ Ed: eft ] is expected to be the biggest application, as it extends the already popular automatic payment system that began with smartcards. But instead of a smartcard, the NFC transceiver is built into your cell phone. To buy something, you just tap your cell phone on the reader or pass it within an inch or so of the reader, and zap, your credit card account is automatically billed
[ ED: can you imagine how much you would owe if an earthquake occurred while you were in a store. ? ]

Another application that falls into that category is automatic gated entry. Just pass your cell phone near the reader, and you'll be allowed into a building, parking lot, or other controlled area.
A second proposed application would use NFC to initiate the setup for other forms of wireless. Some short-range wireless modes like Wi-Fi and Bluetooth require the two parties desiring a peer-to-peer (P2P) link to first exchange information to set up the correct protocol. This sometimes is called pairing.
http://www.elecdesign.com/Articles/ArticleID/13373/13373.html
http://www.elecdesign.com/Articles/Index.cfm?ArticleID=13373&pg=2
Archives http://www.elecdesign.com/Issues/
Latest http://www.elecdesign.com/Recent/

Articles on electronic Payments http://www.finextra.com/finchannel.asp?topic=payments

What is SEPA ? Single European Payments Area
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_European_Payments_Area

nfc TAGS : "TOPAZ"
The NFC revolution is here. By allowing two devices to communicate wirelessly with one another when in close proximity, communication will become as simple and instinctive as through touching," according to Heikki Huomo, CTO at Innovision Research & Technology.
NFC is a standards-based, short-range wireless connectivity technology that enables simple two-way interactions among electronic devices (such as digital cameras, mobile phones, PDAs and computers) allowing consumers to perform contactless transactions, access digital content and connect devices with a single touch. NFC also simplifies setup of longer-range wireless technologies, such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.
http://www.rfidsolutionsonline.com/content/news/article.asp?docid={2c0f3f2c-f7a8-4c17-baad-c0b152f5a2c8}

‘Payment and ticketing’ – where NFC will build on the emerging smart ticketing and electronic payment infrastructures. Many banks and mobile operators are interested in offering payment and ticketing applications on phones, and trials by the likes of Visa and MasterCard are already underway in Europe and the US.
http://www.rfidsolutionsonline.com/content/news/article.asp?docid={aeb4b131-e9da-49ce-b030-54150f5716c2}

MasterCard PayPass with MicroPass www.insidecontactless.com/products/micropass_suite.php


OTHER LINKS

Smart cards on DVDs ?
http://www.newscientisttech.com/article/dn10306-invention-smartcard-dvds.html

What is a QR Code ?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QR_Code


Salvation hopetotheend.com/sal.html

Bible www.blueletterbible.org