Hope To The End..... Chip Index
Wireless in-body medical communication and
MICS ... Medical Implant Communication Service ( ultra-low power communication radio platform )
Implanted battery devise plus radio telemetry
What is an integrated circuit ?
What is an Atomic , or nuclear, battery ?
What is Betavoltaics ?
What is a transceiver ?
Zarlink Wireless in-body
The company said the new ZL70100 [ Ed : Zarlink transceiver ] chip merges with its radio frequency (RF) technology to meet the MICS (Medical Implant Communication Service) standard.
RF technology is designed to allow high-speed 500 kb/s data transmission over a two-meter range, a feature that may encourage the development of telemedicine applications that extend patient health monitoring beyond the traditional clinical setting
It works by wirelessly sending patient health and device performance data from a medical device to a bedside base station, which is then transferred to a physician's office via the telephone or internet. The technology also assists in surgical procedures
Implanted sensors, stimulators
The higher data rate and extended communication range of our radio transceiver enables advanced in-body communication systems, such as implanted blood glucose sensors controlling insulin intake for diabetes patients, networked stimulators restoring lost limb function or pacemakers using the high-speed wireless link to signal emergency response during a cardiac event."
Advances in ultra low-power radio expertise and global adoption of the MICS 402-405 MHz frequency band for implanted communications opens the door for advanced telemedicine applications that extend patient health monitoring beyond the traditional clinical setting. Physicians can use MICS technology to remotely monitor patient health without requiring regular hospital visits. For example, an ultra low-power RF transceiver in a pacemaker can wirelessly send patient health and device performance data to a bedside base station in the home. Data is then forwarded over the telephone or Internet to a physician's office, and if a problem is detected the patient goes to the hospital where the high-speed two-way RF link can be used to easily monitor and adjust device performance.
The highly integrated ZL70100 chip requires just two external components excluding antenna matching, allowing manufacturers to use circuit substrate space savings to increase battery size and support advanced functionality while also lowering BoM (Bill of Material) costs.
"Blue Brain" ..stimulating the brain
To get information about the human brain's capacity for perception, attention, and memory, the researchers want to reproduce neuron circuitry in a computer program in order to simulate a basic building block of the brain. As Markram explained, a neuron is like a tree the size of the sewing pin. "Information enters via the branches and exits via the roots." As some 60,000 of the nerve cells are in a very small part of the brain, roots and branches constantly overlap due to the lack of space. Information is transmitted via these contacts, called synapses. "And that is one dense forest."
In-body devices http://products.zarlink.com/product_profiles/ZL70100
Ultra low-power communication http://ulp.zarlink.com/what_is_ulp.htm
Neurological devices ...neural control
Implant Sciences ... Anthony Armini
Implant Sciences, incorporated in 1984, is using its core ion technology to develop, manufacture and market products for the homeland security, semiconductor and medical device industries. The Company has developed and commercialized portable and bench-top trace element detection devices to identify explosives. In addition, the Company recently received an FDA 510k approval for its new radioactive source for the use in the treatment of breast cancer. For further details on the Company and its products please visit the Company's website at www.implantsciences.com.
Creating a need ( user-base ) for VeriChip
Perhaps the biggest hurdle facing the company is building a sufficient user base for VeriChip. McGrath notes that some
11 million Americans a year receive some sort of implant-pacemakers, artificial hips, arterial stents. He believes many would choose a system that would give medical personnel ready access to information on these implants in emergency situations. .......
Despite such criticisms, Applied Digital and its subsidiaries are moving aheadnot just with the medical ID application of VeriChip, but with other technologies, including long-term research into an implantable device for locating people via the global positioning system.
BIOSENSING ....Temperature sensing
Digital Angel has already added temperature sensing capability to the ID chip used in pets. It implanted this new device in 50,000 animals in the UK in 2004, with plans for a U.S. introduction this year. Zeke Mejia, chief technology officer for Digital Angel, says that the new deviceslightly largely than the ID chiphas the temperature sensor and calibration programming embedded into an ASIC. The company has applied for a U.S. patent on the technology.
The temperature sensor is the first step in what the company sees as a natural progression toward adding more sophisticated biosensing capabilities to its chip, such as glucose monitoring, a technology that it eventually hopes to implant in humans. "This is still years away, but we don't want to rest on our laurels with just an ID chip," Seelig says.
Applied Digital officials insists that
the company is making progress in gaining the medical field's
interest in VeriChip. They point to the thousands of deaths that
occur each year as a result of medical misinformation, as well as
to the Department of Health and Human Services efforts to get
$138 million in new funding to revamp the country's
medical records system.
Active Radio in the body ...SubQore
Less than one microamp ..... Externals to work with integrated sensors
Many of today's implant devices with integrated sensors use inductive techniques to communicate data with external circuitry. This requires holding an activating device in very close proximity to the body, typically pressed against the skin. The communication data rate is low, just a few kbits/sec, so the diagnostic tool has to be held against the patient for a long time to completely receive the data. Power consumption is critical in these applications, since replacing the battery requires a surgical procedure. Typical battery life ranges from five to 10 years.
Two externals : SubQore architecture ( protocol ) plus an interrogator
To improve the performance and put an active radio in the body, power consumption is one of the primary considerations. Using technology derived from paging and ultra-low power automation devices, Cambridge Consultants designed its SubQore architecture to have an average current of less than 1 ľA, and less than 1.7 mA peak, for 0.05 percent duty-cycle, 400 kbits/sec bidirectional communications. In contrast, even the newest "standard" wireless protocol, ZigBee, typically draws 20 mA. Engineers estimate the units will deliver more than 10 years of useful battery life from a lithium-ion cell.
The SubQore architecture takes full advantage of the unique requirements of medical implants. In a typical application, another wireless communication device, an interrogator, is located within 6 ft of the patient.
Artificial heart : Internal battery ... Device infection
Power is sent from the external batteries to the internal pump through the skin (transcutaneous), using coils. One coil is implanted inside you and the other is external. When you put the external coil over the implanted coil, power moves through your skin to the internal coil without any wires. For brief periods, you can remove the external coil (transmitter) and be free of all external parts - the internal batteries supply the power for up to 30 minutes this way.
The Abiocor TAH is made mainly of titanium and a kind of polyurethane plastic called Angioflex.
The Arrow Lionheart™ marks a significant advancement in mechanical circulatory support technology because the system is totally implanted. Energy from an external battery pack is transmitted across intact skin to power the system and charge an implanted battery.
"The transcutaneous (across the skin) power source means that there are no external lines or cables protruding through the skin. This alone offers significant advantage to the patient because the percutaneous (through the skin) tubes or wires used in other systems presents a significant risk of infection, says Pae