Hope To The End.......... Forces 1 ..... Forces 2 ......Forces 3 ............ Forces 4 .......... Forces 6
FORCES, part five.... 5
Doomsday Clock .... .bbc
NUCLEAR- MISSILE DEFENCE -- NMD "Star Wars" ( SDI strategic defense initiative)
Space-based weapons; the weaponisation of space; militarization of space
Western Powers; Russia; China ; Space Shield ....Includes NMD umbrella
TMD --Theatre Missile Defense
LASERS, Laser constellation various weaponry, oil and war, bases, profiles etc
Microwave weaponry ..directed-energy weapon... Ray Gun ( phaser - like )
Federation of American Scientists www.fas.org
From the Newswires,
fair educational use:
US will deny outer space to adversaries
The United States will preserve its rights, capabilities, and freedom of action in space... and deny, if necessary, adversaries the use of space capabilities hostile to US national interests," it says.
Canada renews NORAD treaty
PM Stephen Harper agrees on full Canadian coperation for
1. nuclear missile defense NMD
2. now a permanent alliance
3. increase military cooperation with the United States that will not require ... legislation through the House of Commons
4. boost security cooperation with U.S agencies such as the FBI, the CIA and the Department of Homeland Security in monitoring ...
5. Fifth, renewing NORAD opens the way for initial cooperation between Canada and the United States
ballistic missile defense. BMD
Canadian - US Maritime Surveillance
The vote fulfills a Conservative campaign pledge to bring international treaties before the House for a vote; however, critics noted the deal had already been signed in advance and no changes were allowed
Defence Minister Gordon O'Connor said the deal will allow information to be shared with the Americans about internal Canadian waters, as well as the disputed waters between Canada's Arctic islands.
The addition of maritime surveillance is the most
significant change to the North American Aerospace
Defence Command, created in 1958 to provide warning of incoming
missiles from the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Sea Security : Pacific , Atlantic, Arctic and Great Lakes monitoring
"We're having to answer the government's very reasonable question: `What is happening off our coasts, day by day, hour by hour?'" says Cmdr. Al James, who is at the centre of this evolving security mission as head of the Pacific operations centre
Ottawa and Washington have just handed the bilateral defence agency the responsibility for watching for security threats from the seas as well the skies
Culling information from public and classified sources, operations personnel build a "picture" of the marine traffic extending 1,200 nautical miles off shore in the Pacific as well as the waters of the western Arctic.
Another team does the same job in Halifax for the Atlantic Ocean and eastern Arctic. At any given time, the two centres are monitoring some 1,000 ships of all sizes.
(A third centre, overseen by the RCMP and likely to be built somewhere in the Niagara Region, will keep vigil over the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway, which were actually flagged by the Senate defence committee as having the "greatest potential for terrorist activities.")
Canadians are truly astounded to realize that we are now looking at an agreement that clearly deepens the integration militarily in terms of foreign policy between Canada and the U.S.," says New Democrat MP Alexa McDonough (Halifax).
Missile Defense - NMD...U.S.A.
Ground-based laser beam, plus mirrors
an antisatellite laser. It would take advantage of an optical technique that uses sensors, computers and flexible mirrors to counteract the atmospheric turbulence that seems to make stars twinkle.
Federal officials and private experts said the antisatellite work drew on a body of unclassified advances that have made the Starfire researchers world-famous among astronomers. Their most important unclassified work centers on using small lasers to create artificial stars that act as beacons to guide the process of atmospheric compensation.
When astronomers use the method, they aim a small laser at a
point in the sky close to a target star or galaxy, and the
concentrated light excites molecules of air (or, at higher
altitudes, sodium atoms in the upper atmosphere) to glow
Distortions in the image of the artificial star as it returns to Earth are measured continuously and used to deform the telescope's flexible mirror and rapidly correct for atmospheric turbulence. That sharpens images of both the artificial star and the astronomical target.
Unclassified pictures of Starfire in action show a pencil-thin laser beam shooting up from its hilltop observatory into the night sky
Space Superiority for the U.S.
The Air Force, saying it must secure space to protect the nation from attack, is seeking President Bush's approval of a national-security directive that could move the United States closer to fielding offensive and defensive space weapons, according to White House and Air Force officials.
"We haven't reached the point of strafing and bombing from space," Pete Teets, who stepped down last month as the acting secretary of the Air Force, told a space warfare symposium last year.
"Nonetheless, we are thinking about those possibilities."
weapons systems that operate in space
In 2002, after weighing the report of the Rumsfeld space commission, President Bush withdrew from the 30-year-old Antiballistic Missile Treaty, which banned space-based weapons.
The Air Force believes "we must establish and maintain space superiority," Gen. Lance Lord, who leads the Air Force Space Command, told Congress recently. "Simply put, it's the American way of fighting." Air Force doctrine defines space superiority as "freedom to attack as well as freedom from attack" in space.
Yet "there seems little doubt that space-basing of weapons is an accepted aspect of the Air Force" and its plans for the future, Capt. David C. Hardesty of the Naval War College faculty says in a new study.
GPS Satellites and technological warfare .. Achilles heel vulnerability
4 Types of weaponry:
1. A new Air Force strategy, Global Strike, calls for a military space plane carrying precision-guided weapons armed with a half-ton of munitions. General Lord told Congress last month that Global Strike would be "an incredible capability"
to destroy command centers or missile bases "anywhere in the world."
Pentagon documents say the weapon, called the common aero vehicle, could strike from halfway around the world in 45 minutes. [ Ed. shorter time, when command center is nearer : See Revelation 8 : 1 ]
"This is the type of prompt Global Strike I have identified as a top priority for our space and missile force,"
General Lord said.
In April, the Air Force launched the XSS-11, an experimental microsatellite with the technical ability to disrupt other nations' military reconnaissance and communications satellites.
2. Another Air Force space program, nicknamed Rods From God, aims to hurl cylinders of tungsten, titanium or uranium from the edge of space to destroy targets on the ground, striking at speeds of about 7,200 miles an hour with the force of a small nuclear weapon. [ Ed. See Rev. 16:21 ]
Fire down from heaven
3. A third program would bounce laser beams off mirrors hung from space satellites or huge high-altitude blimps, redirecting the lethal rays down to targets around the world.
Microwave targets ( including people ???)
4. A fourth seeks to turn radio waves into weapons whose powers could range "from tap on the shoulder to toast," in the words of an Air Force plan.
Directed-energy Laser Weapon ( Microwave )
The concept, dubbed the High Energy Laser for Rocket, Artillery and Mortar (HELRAM) defence system, has grown out of the company's continuing work on a deuterium-fluoride chemical laser system under the joint US Army-Israeli Ministry of Defence Mobile Tactical High Energy Laser (MTHEL) programme.
"DEATH STAR "
No nation will accept the U.S. developing something they see as the death star, Hitchens told a Council on Foreign Relations meeting last month. I dont think the United States would find it very comforting if China were to develop a death star, a 24/7 on-orbit weapon that could strike at targets on the ground anywhere in 90 minutes.
Weapons in Space
What the air force has in mind is shrouded in secrecy and euphemisms
Military equipment in outer space ( Atlas 5 -- Centaur )
photos of 2003 launch http://www.spaceflightnow.com/atlas/av003/030715preview.html
Space-Based Laser To Intercept Missiles
"If deployed, space-based lasers would be mounted on satellites. Snyder said the test envisioned for 2005 or 2006 most likely would involve launching a prototype laser into space and then firing it back at a target in the earth's atmosphere.
In the first Bush administration, a space-based missile defense initiative known as "Brilliant Pebbles" was considered but abandoned. It envisaged between 3,600 and 4,000 satellites armed with space-based interceptors"
U.S. to weaponize space
While the aggressive new policy aimed at making U.S. satellites capable of striking enemy targets both on the ground
and in orbit may be scuttled by controversy or prohibited by cost, elements within the White House and the Pentagon will continue to stress the military's increasing dependence on satellite technology
With nations like China and Russia actively pursing treaties that would outlaw the deployment of space-based weapons, analysts say cosmic battlefields will only flourish if the president extends his policy of pre-emptive military action to the heavens.
Masters of Space
"space force application" or attacking the ground from orbit. The air force claims that it can design military satellites that could protect US military and civilian satellites already in orbit. However, most space experts argue that the satellites are aimed at destroying other country's satellites
We're legitimising the idea of attacking other people's satellites and we have the most to lose. This technology is diffusing rapidly," Ms Grego said. "To be the masters of space you'd have to not allow anyone else to launch into space. But you can't blow up everyone's launch pads."
The new weapons being studied range from hunter-killer satellites to orbiting weapons using lasers, radio waves,
[ Ed : zapping targets with microwave ]
or even dense metal tubes dropped from space by a weapon known as "Rods from God" on ground targets.
NFIRE Near Field InfraRed Experiment
NFIRE is a Missile Defense Agency mission that supports its new ground-based, boost-phase interceptor initiative. Spectrum Astro officials said the company plans to have the NFIRE satellite bus built and ready for integration of the first payload just 18 months since receiving the contract from the federal government.
Gilbert-based Spectrum Astro has mission and spacecraft
design, manufacture, integration and test responsibility. In
addition, the company will integrate the two NFIRE payloads and
test the entire satellite at its new satellite manufacturing
facility in Gilbert. [
By SpectrumAstro www.spectrumastro.com.
Beaming Down Microwave Energy
mirrors collecting solar energy > Intern. Space Station / Solar satellite > photoelectric cells in space > convert to electrical energy >
> electrical energy converted to microwave energy beamed down to an array of rectifying antennae on earth and the receiving stations reconvert that radiation to electricity > which is then sent to transmission towers > and sent to specific grids
Used by DARPA, ARPA - E http://www.aip.org/fyi/2007/046.html "Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy."
and NASA , DoD , Pentagon , DoE
SSAFE Space Solar Alliance for Future Energy http://ssafe.wordpress.com/
National Space Society www.nss.org NSSO
Space Frontier www.space-frontier.org
Prometheus ignites nuclear fires
Yet Prometheus is not without its detractors. Opponents see the program as dangerous and risky, dismissing it as a front for military star warriors.
In Greek mythology, Prometheus was the wisest of the Titans, and he gave the gift of fire to humanity. The name Prometheus means 'forethought', and true to its name, NASA's space nuclear power initiative was born out of past research with an eye on future innovations.
NASAs Project Prometheus is targeted at developing two types of nuclear-powered technologies: Radioisotope-based generators
and nuclear fission-based systems.
On the one hand, radioisotope power work falls into two camps,
a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG)
and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG).
By converting the reactor's heat to electricity, JIMO could operate with more than 100 times as much power as a non-fission system of comparable weight.
On May 3, a protest of "NASA Plutonium launches and warfare in space" is slated outside the gates of the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
Organized by the Global Network Against Weapons &
Nuclear Power in Space of Gainesville, Florida, the
group wants to call attention to White House intentions to spend
nearly $3 billion in the next five years to
expand NASA's nuclear
space program. Moreover, they argue that any military-run
space laser project to control space requires onboard
nuclear reactors too
LEO satelites vulnerable to attack from the ground
Because satellites are in fixed orbit it is easy to calculate their course and send missiles or other weapons to intercept them, experts said. And because LEO is around 180 miles up in space, it remains well within the range of any nation that can field intermediate-range missiles.
( Ed Who can make war with us ??? )
Currently 80 percent of the estimated 800 military satellites in space are American, with a majority of the rest being Russian, David Wright, co-director of Global Security Studies at the Union of Concerned Scientists, a group opposed to the militarization of space, told the conference. And 43 percent of these military satellites were at the more vulnerable LEO level, Wright said. Another 43 percent of all military satellites orbited at 21,600 miles in geosynchronous Earth orbit, he said.
Space-Based Weapons; Pre-emptive Strike; Dominion
Centre for Defence Information ; British-American Security Information Council (Basic)
Documents reveal that the US Air Force has for the first time adopted a doctrine to establish 'space superiority'.
The new doctrine means that pre-emptive strikes against enemy satellites would become 'crucial steps in any military operation'. This week defence experts will attend a conference in London amid warnings that President Bush's re-election will pave the way to the arming of space.
Counterspace Operations reveals that destroying enemy satellites would improve the chance of victory
It states: 'Space superiority provides freedom to attack as well as freedom from attack.
SB "interceptors" : Plans for a 'thin constellation of three to six spacecraft' in orbit, which would target enemy missiles as they took off or landed, are planned, according to Hitchens.
Britain's agreement in principle to station US interceptor missiles at RAF Fylingdales, North Yorkshire.
How Nuclear Missile Defense Works http://people.howstuffworks.com/missile-defense.htm
US readies Star War Plans
the U.S. Air Force Transformation Flight Plan pdf changes all that. Released in November, the report makes U.S. dominance of the heavens a top Pentagon priority in the new century. And it runs through dozens of research programs designed to ensure that America can never be challenged in orbit -- from anti-satellite lasers to weapons that "would provide the capability to strike ground targets anywhere in the world from space."
"there will the eagles be gathered "
However, there's more to the Air Force plan than keeping satellites safe. The Evolutionary Air and Space Global Laser Engagement, or EAGLE, project aims to put mirrors underneath an airship 25 times the size of the Goodyear blimp. In theory, lasers -- fired from the ground, from space, or from the air -- would bounce off these blimp-borne mirrors, to track or even destroy enemy missiles.
Incredible as it sounds, the EAGLE effort is underway at the
Air Force Research Laboratory's Directed Energy division, sources
there confirm. Also under research at the lab is the Ground-Based
Laser, which, according to the Air Force report, would shoot
"laser beams through the atmosphere" to knock out enemy
spacecraft in low-earth orbit. http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,62358,00.html?tw=wn_tophead_1
US wants to control Space
By Julian Coman
"The United States is planning to take control of parts of space and develop patrolling military aircraft in orbit as part of a revived Star Wars proposal for an American empire above the ozone layer.
According to James Roche, the US Air Force secretary, America's allies would have "no veto power" over projects designed to achieve US military control of space.
The key theme of the ambitious plans is described as "negation" - the denial of the use of space for military intelligence, or other purposes, without American endorsement.
"The plans come after the successful use of global positioning
satellites (GPS) and other space technology during the recent
wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.
The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the agency that is responsible for US spy satellites, is to develop a strategy that ensures US allies, as well as its enemies, never gain access to the same space resources without Washington's permission. Recent proposals that have been circulated at space command and NRO briefings suggest that access to "near-Earth space" might be refused to other nations.
Mounted on Commercial Airplanes
In an airplane hangar north of Fort Worth, technicians are preparing to mount a fire-hydrant-shaped device onto the belly of an American Airlines Boeing 767. It is an effort that could soon turn into a more than $10 billion project to install a high-tech missile defense system on the nation's commercial planes.
The Boeing 767 - the same type of plane that terrorists flew
into the World Trade Center - is one of three planes that, by the
end of this year, will be used to test the infrared
laser-based systems designed to find and disable
shoulder-fired missiles. The missiles have long been popular
among terrorists and rebel groups in war zones around the world;
the concern now is that they could become a domestic
But a significant contingent of domestic security experts say the administration's focus on these missiles may be misdirected. They cite the broad range of ways that terrorists might strike next and point to studies showing that shoulder-fired missiles - the most popular of which are American-made Stingers and Soviet-made SA-7's - present less of a threat at airports than do truck bombs or luggage bombs.
Raytheon microwave beams for airports ; "Vigilant Eagle"
layered defense system.
Raytheon was set to disclose at the Paris Air Show on Tuesday that it was developing a technology to protect commercial aircraft from shoulder-fired missiles, a system of infrared sensors and microwave beams that would shield airports and divert missiles away from planes
Called the Vigilant Eagle system, it would position a grid of infrared sensors on cellphone towers and buildings around airports.
When it detected a heat-seeking missile launched at a passenger jet, it would steer an electromagnetic beam at the missile to divert it. It would also determine the launch point and quickly notify security officials
Raytheon, the company first would have to convince U.S. officials that its airport-based technology was superior to an existing system installed on the planes that is in use on about 300 military aircraft. Civilian prototypes of the laser-based technology, built by Northrop Grumman and BAE Systems, [ British Aerospace ] will be tested on airliners this year.
One issue facing both laser and microwave antimissile technology is what happens to a missile when it is diverted from an aircraft. Neither system is able to destroy the missile, so there would be a chance - statistically small, contractors say - that it could strike a building or other structure
747 Laser power "First Light"
WASHINGTON - A Boeing Co.-led team has successfully fired for the first time a powerful laser meant to fly aboard a modified 747 as part of a U.S. ballistic missile defense shield, officials said Friday.
It showed they work, Kenneth Englade, an agency spokesman, said of the lasers six identical, pickup-truck-sized, modules linked to fire as a single unit. The rest is fine-tuning.
The Chemical Oxygen Iodine laser is built by Northrop Grumman Corp. It includes breakthrough optics designed to focus a basketball-sized spot of heat on a missiles skin to rupture it up to hundreds of miles away.
ABL AirBorne Laser more complex than first thought
The ABL -- launched in 1996 and at least three years behind schedule -- was meant to include four major components: a modified Boeing 747 platform, a high-energy chemical laser; a beam control and fire control system; and a battle management and command and control system.
Every passenger plane a laser-attack plane ?
Aside from paralyzing potential attackers or noncombatants like a long-range stun gun, directed-energy weapons could fry the electronics of missiles and roadside bombs, developers say, or even disable a vehicle in a high-speed chase.
The most ambitious program is the Air Force's Airborne Laser, a plan to mount a laser on a modified Boeing 747 and use it to shoot down missiles.
At the same Air Force Research Laboratory in New Mexico, researchers working with Raytheon Co. have developed a weapon called the Active Denial System, which repels adversaries by heating the water molecules in their skin with microwave energy. The pain is so great that people flee immediately.
"It just feels like your skin is on fire," said Rich Garcia, a spokesman for the laboratory who, as a test subject, has felt the Active Denial System's heat. "When you get out of the path of the beam, or shut off the beam, everything goes back to normal. There's no residual pain."
[ trust them ]
You can rest assured that with this system, when it finally is deployed, we will be very, very clear about what the intended uses are and what is clearly outside of bounds," said Marine Corps Capt. Daniel McSweeney, spokesman for the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate. "It's not intended to be used as a torture device. That goes against all the design intentions and parameters."
Research into side effects of weaponized directed energy began in the late 1990s at the Air Force's Brooks City-Base in San Antonio. Researchers began by reviewing studies of radio-frequency energy involved in military communications, radar and other technologies, officials say.
You're dealing with the ability to pre-detonate the majority of improvised explosives that are used right now," said Pete Bitar, president of Xtreme Alternative Defense Systems, an Anderson, Ind., company that is developing a rifle-sized directed-energy gun for the Marines.
The device works by creating an electrical charge through a stream of ionized gas, or plasma.
An important test of the United States' emerging missile-defense system ended in an $85-million failure on Wednesday as an interceptor rocket failed to launch as scheduled from the Marshall Islands, the Pentagon said.
A target rocket carrying a mock warhead was successfully launched from Kodiak, Alaska.
But as the interceptor rocket was preparing to launch from the Marshalls 16 minutes later it automatically shut down because of "an unknown anomaly," the Defense Department's Missile Defense Agency said.
Japan to work with the US for Nuclear Missile Defense
Japan has decided to develop the components for interception missiles with the United States, moving forward the ongoing joint technological research on a missile defense system to a development stage amid U.S. pressure to advance the project, government sources said Sunday.
Meanwhile, the government decided last December to purchase from the United States and deploy a missile defense system due mainly to threats from North Korea.
The joint research covers four areas --
1. infrared ray sensors for identifying and tracking missiles,
2. high-performance shields to protect interceptor warheads from air-attrition heat,
3. second-rocket propulsion units,
4. and kinetic warheads for destroying warheads of incoming ballistic missiles.
NMD could go to Eastern Europe; Poland, Czech Republic
And UK and Denmark
Missile Defense set to go-- Summer 2004
The next flight tests are scheduled for May and July; thus, the Pentagon could end up activating the anti-missile system before results of the summer tests have been fully assessed.
The system relies on land-based interceptors to soar and ram into enemy warheads headed toward the United States. It is intended as just one layer of what Bush envisions will be a multilayered network of defenses. Other systems under development are aimed at striking missiles soon after launch with land- or sea-based interceptors or airborne lasers. Should a missile survive these layers of defense, another system of interceptors would target it as it descended.
six [ interceptors] at Fort Greely in Alaska and four at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Internally, Pentagon officials set Sept. 30 this year as the deadline for opening the Fort Greely facility.
The Pentagon plans to start loading interceptors into silos at Fort Greely in May or June, continuing through the autumn there and into January at Vandenberg. Software improvements to a critical tracking radar, known as Cobra Dane and located on Shemya Island in the Aleutians, are due for completion in July. Shortly after that, the anti-missile system could go on alert for the first time.
Fort Greeley breaks ground
Although the missile program will remain a work in progress, completion of major construction at Fort Greely and the arrival of interceptors represent the first time the United States can claim to have any type of defense system against an intercontinental missile attack, Holly said.
"Today we have nothing," he said. "When we put
that system on alert, that will be a significant improvement.
Anything is better than nothing."
Holly said that the missile defense system is essential with countries around the world openly boasting about their ability to attack the United States.
Bush begins first phase of NMD
Interceptors in Alaska and on Aegis ships
The initial system will consist of ground-based interceptor missiles based at Fort Greeley, Alaska. The interceptors are designed to destroy any long-range missiles fired at the United States or conceivably at a U.S. ally. ....
In addition, a system designed to destroy short-range and medium-range missiles would be deployed aboard Navy ships equipped with the advanced Aegis radar system.
As part of the system, Great Britain said it has been asked by the United States to upgrade some early warning radar systems. Denmark and Greenland also have been asked to assist with the deployment of radar and other tracking systems critical to the missile defense system.
"Kill vehicles" (inteceptors) to be nuclear-tipped
D. ASYMMETRY ...
GIG ... eye-in-the-sky internet networking: most advantageous in war
Advocates say networked computers will be the most powerful weapon in the American arsenal. Fusing weapons, secret intelligence and soldiers in a global network - what they call net-centric warfare - will, they say, change the military in the way the Internet has changed business and culture.
US to continue with Aegis system
Despite its first failure, the United States continues to develop the Aegis sea-based missile defense system.
The Defense Department has been awarding contracts for a range of subsystems related to the Aegis. They include development of the interceptor, fire control system and the system's radar.
The Pentagon has awarded Raytheon Integrated
Defense Systems a $6 million contract for engineering technical
services relating to subsystems of the Aegis. Raytheon, based in Sudbury,
Mass., will help produce the Spy-1D Aegis
weapon system transmitter group and the MK99 fire control
The Aegis weapon system is regarded as the primary anti-air warfare defensive weapons system for Ticonderoga-class cruisers and Arleigh Burke-class destroyers. The heart of the Aegis is the AN/SPY-1 radar system.
on Space Initiative:
Future wars fought from the skies
TMD...Theater Missile Defense (Global umbrella)
anti-missile shield......Joseph Fitchett--IHT
"US intends to put anti-missile shield around the World"
China disapproves TMD
War in Space Newest Field--Thomas E. Ricks, WashingtonPost
"Space is Playing Field for Newest Game"
Bush wins the final battle for Star Wars
Ian Traynor in Moscow and Julian Borger in Washington
Space Command.....Strategic Space Command
There had been some talk in the Pentagon that two other commands, the Space Command and the Strategic Command, which oversees strategic nuclear weapons, would be merged. But that issue has been put off for additional study, officials said. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A4858-2002Apr17.html
Secret Spy - Satellite found in outer-space
Bush accelerates NMD; abandons ABM treaty
4th test of interceptor successful
Bush cuts back nuclear missiles
The United States has about 7,200 strategic nuclear warheads and is committed to cutting that level to between 3,000 and 3,500 under the START II accord, which the Senate has not ratified. Clinton and Russian leaders discussed a possible START III accord that would cut U.S. stocks to between 2,000 and 2,500.
Who can make war with him?
Now they support Star Wars, which will allow America to launch nuclear attacks undeterred by the fear of reprisal, and applaud while the US proposes abrogating multilateral arms-control treaties.
US military incompetence is a false comfort. The rest of the world will base its response to Star Wars on what it expects will happen. The fact that Bush can't say what system he will deploy because he doesn't know how the technology can be made to work paradoxically leads other powers to prepare for the worst.....
All the fine reasoning of the Atlanticists, developed and polished over generations in the Cold War, has shrunk to servility before American power.
Donald Rumsfeld, Sec. of Defense, pro-Star Wars
More Information of Nuclear Missile Defense
Other missile defense systems include the Army's Patriot Advanced Capability 3 (PAC-3) and Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), as well as the Navy Theater Wide (NTW) system.
National Security Space Management and Organisational Initiative
"Currently, the Pentagon's space program includes reconnaissance satellites as well as several systems that are under development, including airborne and space-based laser systems and a system of satellites that can detect missile launches.
The reorganisation is intended to increase the Pentagon's focus on outer space and consolidate programs involving military and intelligence space programs under one roof. "
"SPACE FORCE" General to be named
One aspect of this is likely to include the role of satellites in the missile defense system
that President Bush has committed the nation to building.
The militarization of space...weaponizing space
Monetary persuasion for GMD...Global Missile Defense
Disarmament influence...endangering Americans
"Space is the future of the Air Force, and they are ready to get out of the missile business," Arkin said. http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A77887-2001May25.html
Practicing in Colorado ; Space-Theater Wars
U.S. Satellites vulnerable to attack
The Outcome: Less than expected
Star War Growth
US Missile Defense and World Domination
Boeing gets contract for Nuclear Missile Defense
G. W. Bush to continue National Missile Defense System
Anti Ballistic Misssiles may start arms race
Colin Powell: not so soon on NMD
WHAT SATELLITES DO (Interesting)
Star Wars : NMD http://www.gn.apc.org/cndyorks/yspace/default.htm ....many articles
Nuclear Space Initiative
"In addition to providing regular opportunities for high-priority planetary research through the New Frontiers program, NASA's FY 2003 budget request makes critical investments towards faster, more frequent, more flexible, and more capable planetary missions for the future. Our FY 2003 budget request includes new funding for a Nuclear Systems Initiative (NSI) to develop nuclear power and nuclear-electric propulsion technologies.
"Nuclear power and nuclear electric propulsion will: ... expand launch windows to planetary targets, enable faster spacecraft, and increase science return per mission dollar.
One part of the program will develop a new generation of
radioisotope power systems (RPS), which can generate several
hundred watts of electrical power for spacecraft and scientific
instruments for missions in deep space and on planetary surfaces.
European Theater: Son of Starwars
Star Wars Missiles May be Based in UK
Jan. 19-Pres. W. Bush to go to Europe soon
American military firms in joint ventures with France and Britain
Feb. 5-2001...NMD...Germany, Aspen Institute...Wolfgang Ischinger
Australia's "Pine Gap" key player in NMD
Australia as America's Mini-Me is not a new act. Ever since it was, in effect, abandoned by Britain in the second world war, it has seen America as its security blanket,
Russia will respond with own NMD
Russia tests anti-NMD missile
Bush, Putin and the ABM Treaty
While the Russians stuck to their support for the ABM pact, arguing its abrogation would invalidate the 32 arms control and security agreements that have flowed from it over the past 30 years,
Despite disagreements over missile defence, global warming and Nato expansion, the Russians and the Europeans were warned that the Republicans would get their way, preferably with, but if necessary without, their cooperation......
Putin also cautioned that any 'unilateral actions could only make things more complicated'.
This went down less well with the
Bush administration. While seeking to woo Putin and EU leaders
with offers of 'partnership' and 'consultation', Bush also made
it plain that he was dictating the terms of the cooperation as
the leader of the world's sole superpower.
Why Russia opposes NMD
What about a Russian response?
TMD Theatre Missile defense
These responses would depend on the specific infrastructure of the U.S. missile defense and space weaponization programs, Zhang said. But they could include producing as many as 14 or 15 times as many ICBMs with a range of more than 7,800 miles that are able to threaten the United States, he said.
Currently, China has about 20 liquid-fueled, silo-based ICBMs with single warheads. But if the United States deployed a Ground-Based Missile Defense system with 100 to 250 ground-based interceptor rockets, China would probably be willing to build and deploy anything from 100 to almost 300 more warheads and the missiles necessary to carry them, Zhang said.
Chinese scientists and engineers would also work on passive
countermeasures against missile defense, Zhang said. These could
include deploying decoys and anti-simulations and reducing the
radar and infrared signatures of nuclear warheads during
the midcourse phase of their flights.
China develops Dongfeng 31 ; a threat to US NMD-shield
"Chinas most advanced missiles have a range in excess of 8,000 miles, which puts them within striking distance of the continental United States. Chinese scientists are working on equipping these missiles with multiple independently targeted re-entry vehicles (Mirvs), meaning that the warhead can separate into more than a dozen individual weapons in space.
"At present China has around 20 long-range missiles, a number that experts say would allow the American shield to protect against the Chinese arsenal.
Washington aims to be able to guard against attacks by rogue states employing up to 24 missiles.
If Beijing upgraded all its missiles with multiple
warheads, the analyst said, it could easily
overwhelm the shield. That would change the
balance of power in Asia.
China develops anti-missiles
LASERS... "fire down
from heaven" --- Rev. 13
Laser defense systems on Airliners
Both Northrop Grumman and BAE Systems will rig out-of-service planes with laser defense systems designed to misdirect shoulder-fired missiles, said John Kubricky, director of the Department of Homeland Security's systems engineering and development office. Test results will be sent to Congress early next year
Most powerful laser [ 82 million Celsius]
In a building the size of a football stadium, engineers have assembled the framework for a network of 192 laser beams, each traveling 1,000 feet (305 meters) to converge simultaneously on a target the size of a pencil eraser
Four of the beams have been tested. When completed in 2008, the National Ignition Facility, or NIF, as the laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories is called, will dwarf many times over any laser to date
The goal is to create unimaginable heat 180 million degrees Farenheit and intense pressure from all directions on a BB-size hydrogen fuel pellet, compressing it to one-thirtieth of its size.
Israel develops better laser power - chemical-laser technology
the BGU Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser is noted as one of the significant breakthroughs of 2003.
"The big powers are building big machines. But the relative small size of what we have developed allows greater flexibility in changing the structure of the laser, and a deeper understanding the optimal parameters and quick introduction of new developments in is operation - as well as its increased efficiency," stressed Rosenwaks
By efficiency, Rosenwaks explains that his team has been able to produce more laser power using a given amount of chemical reagents.
The Israeli-developed laser uses nitrogen as a diluent, instead of helium, which is usually used in chemical lasers
The American interest stems from the lasers' potential military application as an anti-missile weapon, in the form of an airborne laser, known as ABL.
The U.S. military is developing a system in which Boeing jets would carry a mounted laser system and patrol territory from which there is a missile threat. Flying above 40,000 feet, the airplane would carry a monitoring system that would be able to detect when a missile was being put into the "boost phase" before launch. Then, hopefully, while the missile would still be vulnerable, the laser could be aimed and sent to destroy it.
Hazardous Ordnance Engagement Toolkit
laser strikes against SA - 7
The U.S. Air Force has been briefed on a system that could automatically detect an infrared surface-to-air missile launch and emit a laser beam to destroy the projectile. The system would be based on the
Tactical High Energy Laser [ THEL ] developed by Israel and the United States in 2001.
Northrop Grumman has shown the Air Force a deuterium-fluoride chemical laser system that could either be mounted on a mobile or stationary platform. The concept, called the Hazardous Ordnance Engagement Toolkit, is designed to protect military and civilian airports from man-portable shoulder-fired missiles such as the Soviet-origin SA-7, which was fired toward a U.S. F-15 outside a Saudi air base in 2002.
U.S. officials and Northrop executives said they are trying to
determine how many laser units would be required to protect a
military airport. A unit could engage a salvo of missiles in
accordance with THEL tests conducted at White Sands Missile Range
in 2001. The THEL tests were conducted against 28 Katyusha
rockets and artillery shells. http://126.96.36.199/2003/ss_military_11_03.html
Radar- Laser Nautilus for short-range ( personal ? )
A recent Israeli delegation successfully lobbied Congress to approve the new funding package for the joint U.S.-Israeli Nautilus laser weapon project, said Israeli lawmaker Yuval Steinitz, who was part of the delegation.
"Now we have to make it an efficient, compact weapon that can be used in the battlefield and in the war on terrorism," Steinitz said.
The Nautilus uses a high-powered radar to track and lock onto the incoming projectile. Then a Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (MIRACL), which looks like a large spotlight, shoots out an intense beam that destroys the rocket.
The White Sands test marked the first time that a rocket has been destroyed in flight by a laser beam. The laser has also proved its ability to shoot down artillery shells.
Also Tuesday, the Maariv daily reported the Israeli military is testing a gun that can fire at right angles.
According to the report, the pistol, produced by the Florida-based Corner Shot Holdings, has already been bought by a number of special forces around the world.
Invisible Laser beam cuts steel a mile away
A new high energy laser weapon and F-16 flight simulator, designed by the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Theater Aerospace Command Control Simulation Facility at Kirtland Air Force Base, will let pilots test technology that could put the United States far ahead of its enemies.
The F-16 model is a smaller version of the airborne laser weapon already under development for use on a Boeing 747 for shooting down missiles. It could be ready for use in 2012, but before that happens, pilots will test the system in the simulator to see how useful it is and suggest ways it could be improved to help them in combat.
"Essentially what we're looking at is that this
laser can hit a target at the speed of light, almost instantly compared
with the time of flight of a missile, which can take several
seconds," said Jono Tyson, a contract employee from
Scientific Research Corp. and assistant project manager at the
The system can also fire at targets on the ground, such as enemy lines or tank columns, Tyson said
JDAMS-- laser guided weaponry (fire down from heaven)
GPS satellite guided
In an interview, Mr. Bolton listed battlefield improvements made during the last decade. He spoke of the emerging Shadow surveillance drone, better night vision gear, a new communication network called
"Force 21 Battle Command, Brigade and Below," and an improved model of the Apache tank-killing helicopter.
Perhaps there is no greater battlefield advancement since 1991 than the deployment of a satellite-guided bomb, the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM).
Using the revolutionary Global Positioning System (GPS), pilots can independently program each 500- or 2,000-pound bomb to hit different targets. Accuracy is measured in feet.
But more importantly, JDAMs is impervious to the elements, or as the military puts it, the system is "all-weather." In the 1991 Gulf war, poor weather caused some laser-guided bombs to go off target, or forced pilots to abort missions.
Israeli-US Mobile Laser Scores first success
"In its first test, the Mobile Tactical Higher Energy Laser laser weapon destroyed an artillery shell traveling at supersonic
The MTHEL tracked, locked and fired a burst of photons on an artillery projectile," a statement by the U.S. Army Space Command said. "Seconds later, at a point well short of its intended destination, the projectile was destroyed."
Airborne lasers (ABL) and Aegis ships
The test of the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense system will include a U.S. Navy Aegis cruiser as well as the developing airborne laser.
For the first time, the flight test will involve a developmental radar representative of that used for the Theater High Altitude Area Defense [THAAD] system. The TPS-X Radar, a high-resolution, X-band phased array radar, will observe the initial phases of the flight to collect data to examine the radar's potential to support a ballistic missile defense system.
In addition, the Pentagon plans to deploy the airborne
laser prototype for the first time. A modified Boeing
747-400 freighter aircraft serves as the platform for a chemical
laser system meant to destroy a ballistic missile soon after it
is launched. The aircraft, which does not yet contain the lasers,
will deploy sensors to locate and track the boosting target
missile during the first minutes of its flight in order to test
the capabilities of the sensors.
Blimps along coastlines
Pentagon officials plan to ring the American continent with giant unmanned craft to spot incoming missiles and aircraft.
The US Missile Defence Agency has asked the countrys largest military contractors to develop a high-altitude airship that can float at 70,000 ft, aiming to have an operational fleet by 2010.
Each airship would carry 40 ft radars with a sweep of about 750 miles, ringing the US coastline.
Initially they would not carry weapons, but the Pentagon hopes that later they could use lasers to attack missiles, a marriage of Great War and Star Wars technology.
Army successfully uses laser weapon
The Army and TRW said in a joint announcement that the laser tracked, locked onto and fired a burst of concentrated light energy photons at the artillery projectile in flight at the service's White Sands, New Mexico, test range.
Laser weapon (MTHEL) successful
The Mobile Tactical High Energy Laser (MTHEL) is being developed by TRW for the Army and the Israeli Defense Ministry. Lasers have been used in past tests at the range to shoot down slower Katyusha Rockets similar to those fired at Israel by militant guerrilla groups in neighboring Lebanon.
"This shootdown shifts the paradigm for defensive
capabilities. We've shown that even an artillery projectile
hurtling through the air at supersonic speed is no match
for a laser," said Army Lt. Gen. Joseph
Cosumano, head of the missile defense command
HPM and UAVs ---microwave, laser, plasma
THE COMBINATION OF unmanned vehicles and HPM (high-power microwave) weapons also provides a way to attack the toughest targets in any foe's arsenal, said Gen. John Jumper, U.S. Air Force chief of staff.
HPM and lasers are the primary directed-energy [ DE ] weapons available to the military, but on the horizon is a third called a plasma weapon. A plasma packet has mass, moves through space and has been compared with a bolt of lightning. It is slower than a laser beam or HPM spike, but it can cause much more physical damage.
F-22 Raptor Airborne Laser Aircraft
"Of all the new weapon systems planned for the US Air Force (USAF), service leaders say they consider the Airborne Laser (ABL), like the F-22 Raptor air-supremacy fighter, truly transformational because it will revolutionise warfare
Loitering at altitudes around 40,000ft, the ABL system is designed to destroy boosting ballistic missiles with a multi-megawatt laser beam that travels at the speed of light over great distances. The high-energy beam, which will be about the diameter of a basketball, will heat the side of a missile until it fails structurally and tumbles to earth. Ideally, ABL programme officials say, the missile, along with its payload, will land on the territory of those who launched it.
The ABL system is carried aboard a modified Boeing 747-400F commercial freighter aircraft. It will house a high-energy chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL), sophisticated beam-control system with adaptive, 'deformable' mirrors to accurately point and fire the laser through atmospheric disturbances, and a battle management, command-and-control system that can simultaneously track and prioritise potential targets.
The USAF wants the ABL to have a lethal range of at least 200 miles.
Laser Canons on airplanes
In an effort to skew those numbers over in the good guys favor, the United States has been given the go-ahead to mount a new laser cannon on AC-130 Spectre gunships, the same kind of planes flying missions over Afghanistan right now.
The US Military has been working on getting lasers in their
arsenal for about fifteen years, but theres always been the
problem of size. Unlike the handheld phaser guns seen in Star
Trek, a laser gun in the real world is about the size of a dump
truck. Unless youre a very big boy, most men on the front
lines would be unable to hoist a laser gun that size around the
Until laser guns can be miniaturized down to handheld size, they are mounted as cannons on warships or large planes. The Boeing Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL) cannon has been in testing at Kirtland Air Force Base in New Mexico for the past year.
America's Laser of Death cleared for take-off
The next generation gunship, codenamed AC-X and nicknamed 'Son of Spectre' by US defence officials, will carry all the weaponry already used on the AC-130 [Spectre]
The advantage of laser weapons is that they strike at the speed of light. In the Coil, the power of a chemical reaction is converted to laser energy, and the weapon can carry on firing as long as its power source is intact.
Paul Wolfowitz, the US deputy defence secretary,
has given the go-ahead for the next-generation AC-130, which
includes full funding for the "integration of a
direct-energy weapon". http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/02/17/wbush217.xml&sSh%20eet=/news/2002/02/17/ixworld.html
Russians develop laser that blinds the enemy
Airborne Lasers: Glen P. Perram (physics prof )....photos
USAF Chief says Decision need to prep for war in outer space
Space-based laser defense
30 minute space-bomber... "for the space of a half hour" Rev. 8:1
A CAV would be a gliding, thousand-pound, hypersonic "penetrator" delivered by a denuclearized and excess Minuteman III missile booster or by a new "Mark I Military Spaceplane," which would be something like a military version of a next-generation space shuttle. It is being designed by Boeing's "Phantom Works" in St. Louis. With air force support, the company has been working on the program in earnest since February 1998.
Boeing is also designing the "Refly"--a reusable, sub-orbital, "precision-strike" mini-spaceplane that would carry two CAVs or other miniaturized munitions. A Refly would be launched from the hold of the spaceplane.
12,000-nautical-mile range, CAVs would have "near total
global coverage" from east and west coast launch sites,
according to a Boeing briefing I obtained. The booster would
release a CAV upon reentry into the atmosphere, and the weapon
would maneuver and glide to the target. Total flight time: 30 to
90 minutes. Boeing concludes that there are "no serious risk
or readiness issues in aeromechanics and performance."
Space-based lasers...calling fire down from heaven
THE US has set up two air force squadrons to defend its spacecraft, including commercial satellites,
as part of its shift towards the militarisation of space......
The US Army is seeking congressional support for research into a space-based laser for surveillance,
space control and missile defence.
Shooting lasers from satellites
developing missile-destroying lasers to be carried on aircraft and later, in a precise replication of the Star Wars plan, laser beams fired from satellites.
Fast-track for Lasers
AIRBORNE LASER AIRCRAFT
Argus ("100 eyes") anti-missile defense aircraft (airborne laser missile killers)
747's to holster lasers
Navy Officer Sues over Laser Attack
Multiple Missile Defense...chemical laser..airborne and sea born
Collaborating on laser technology
LASER Defense.....Jon Dougherty
Indeed, the United States has already developed a working laser weapon, in conjunction with Israel.
"Whoever controls space has control of Earth," he said. "The United States is unable to resist it. If the U.S. is in a position to control Earth from outer space, there's nothing to stop us. Of course we're going to do it."
National Ignition Facility Fusion Laser
"SmarTruck" with laser weaponry....your down-home tank
FORCES continued at http://hopetotheend.com/forces4.html