Hope To The End

EAN / UCP and Brussels, Belgium
Global Standardization Compliance


EAN -- European Article Numbering http://www.ean-int.org/

EPC Global -- Electronic Product Code http://www.epcglobalinc.org/

UCC --- Uniform Code Council http://www.uc-council.org/


Jose Luis Magana / AP file ...msnbc


Labeling ... it's not just for cans anymore

China's Nat'l Product Code to compete with EPC global for RFID -- Market driven
However, China is still pursuing its own numbering system, called the National Product Code, which will compete against EPCglobal's Electronic Product Code (EPC). China will also build and maintain its own database with information on products, manufacturers and transport methods, rather than subscribe to EPC's, which will be maintained by Verisign in the United States.
Ballooning market

In-Stat estimates that China consumed more than 180 million RFID tags in 2005 and believes that more than 2.9 billion tags will be shipped by 2009.
The major application will be smart cards, especially those used for China's national ID card program.
Due to the lack of a draft spec, IC companies in China, including Shanghai Huahong IC and Fudan Microelectronics, are pursuing the ISO standard. Xu Li, director of the marketing department at Fudan, said it has been easier to implement the smart-card applications at 13.56 MHz, but UHF is still a challenge for some local firms
http://www.eetasia.com/ART_8800428220_499488_8c3b0c05200608.HTM

Verichip used to be 125 kHz but is now 134.2 kHz in order to conform to the rest of the world's implanted chip frequency. The 134.2 has a longer read range and is universal ( interoperable ). The standardization is set by ISO out of Geneva, Switzerland.
America thus conforms to European standards.

ISO CHIP 134.2 kHz ...the Verichip
Florida firm VeriChip makes an FDA-approved 134 kHz RFID implantable tag that the company markets both as a tool for providing emergency care physicians access to their electronic medical files "
http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/2525/1/1/

Standard Scanners ( Readers, Interrogators )
The new scanner was designed to read the vast majority of chips in the nation's expanding companion pet marketplace that use a 125 kHz radio frequency including chips that are encrypted. The new scanner can also detect the presence of a 134 kHz radio frequency chip, also called an ISO chip, which is commonly used outside the country but is present in a small number of pets in the U.S.
http://www.morerfid.com/details.php?subdetail=Report&action=details&report_id=920

RFID must have
a label with a global symbol ( image )
Ed: When people are verichipped, will they eventually be required to have an external image "of the beast " ?
The legislation, if passed, would require that no item “to which a tracking device or devices have been affixed or implanted, shall be sold or offered for sale or provided to a consumer without a label containing a universally accepted symbol.” (New Hampshire House Bill 203-FN, Chapter 358-S-2 I).
This article contains a photo gallery and a slideshow, both .
http://news.tmcnet.com/news/2006/02/13/1365597.htm

"Image of the Beast"
Rev. 13 and Rev. 14 .... labeling, logos, symbol, MARK, whatever

Standardization Code for of chip-scanners and databases
"Dog Identification Group"
Chris Laurence, veterinary director for the Dogs Trust, says the UK has worked hard to address these issues. The British Small Animal Veterinary Association has a microchip advisory group that has helped develop standards and
the Dog Identification Group (comprising welfare groups, vets and dog wardens, and chaired by Laurence) has worked with chip manufacturers, distributors and inserters to develop a code of practice.
"The databases are also all accessible by a single point of contact, and that's taken quite a lot of time to agree," he adds.
Some newer chips contain a biosensor and can also send the animals' temperature.
http://www.mg.co.za/articlePage.aspx?articleid=264432&area=/breaking_news/breaking_news__business/
http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2006/02/18/2003293576

Smart card alliance for interoperability
Amsterdam, Luxembourg, Munich, and Paris--The world’s leading smart card manufacturers--Axalto, Gemplus International S.A., Giesecke & Devrient, and Oberthur Card Systems--have announced the creation of the Smart Payment Alliance (SPA), a non-profit association dedicated to fostering and facilitating the usage of smart cards to make payments. The SPA is committed to promoting chip card-based payment applications, improving value-added application interoperability, establishing relevant specifications, and improving security and quality.
http://www.contactlessnews.com/news/2005/01/25/leading-card-suppliers-create-smart-payment-alliance/


RFID tags : Longer read-range; more interoperability
which gives a read range of 2 to 3 meters (up from 0.6 meters). This will allow interoperability with tags in Europe, where RFID devices can use 2 watts of power and where regulations are being considered to allow RFID readers to operate between 865.6 MHz and 867.6 MHz. The power limit for the revised frequency band of 923 to 925 MHz (formerly 924 to 925 MHz) i
http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/1224/1/1/

RFID Protocol

Leading manufacturers and technology providers of data collection and RFID (radio frequency identification) have submitted an RFID protocol definition that would pave the way for rapid adoption of a new worldwide RFID standard known as EPC UHF Generation 2.
Companies supporting the protocol include Royal Philips Electronics, Texas Instruments, Impinj, SAMSys, Q.E.D Systems, UPM Rafsec, and Intermec, along with several others.
The proposed RFID definition currently is in development by EPCglobal Inc., an arm of UCC.EAN charged with establishing the EPC system. The proposed definition meets user requirements outlined by the world's leading retailers and others, including the U.S. Dept. of Defense, the companies said. It fully meets user requirements, works worldwide, meets international standards and provides a path to low-cost RFID tags and readers.
http://www.yenra.com/epc-uhf-generation-2/
http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/941/1/1/

Need seamless systems to work with Verichip
The fact is that the technology does not do much to solve the problems of keeping track of patients and their information in medical environments has gone largely unnoticed. About a third of the cost of health care in the United States is the result of managing information such as patient health records, according to a study by the Boston Consulting Group. Many health care institutions and providers can't effectively track patient data within their own walls, much less across the entire health care system. That's why patients have to continually fill out forms detailing their personal information and medical history.

RFID implants won't solve these problems, because the problems are caused by the inadequacies of the health care system's IT infrastructure and practices. If health care providers don't have a consistent database of patient information they call up at key moments during the treatment process, properly identifying the patient is meaningless. http://www.reed-electronics.com/eb-mag/article/CA475425?industryid=2119

Standardization; Networking your pet
The problem has been that the American and overseas systems are incompatible. So some organizations in North America that maintain identification databases are switching to the international system in the hope of one day linking North American pets and owners to a global database.
Right now, most pet microchips and scanners used in the United States operate on a radio frequency of 125 kilohertz. But the chips used in much of the rest of the world operate at an international standard of 134.2 kilohertz, Ms. Richey said.

Several groups have already begun using the 134.2 kilohertz chip, including the Oregon Humane Society in Portland, which started implanting them in January, said Sharon Harmon, executive director of the society.
It's a mistake to have a technology used only in the U.S.," she said.
"One worldwide standard will provide the ultimate protection for pets."

Read-Write Chips
But Dr. Walt Ingwersen, a veterinarian in Whitby, Ont., who has served as chairman of the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association's microchip committee, said that smarter, read-write chips are on the way. Mr. Ingwersen is now a member of a technical committee that is developing international standards for the advanced transponders. "The animal's ID number will remain the same on the chip," he said, "but the contents will be updatable."
http://www.globetechnology.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20040804.gtpetaug4/BNStory/Technology/

Texas Instrument Standardization
TIRIS (Texas Instruments Registration and Identification System). While its initial offering was aimed at animal identification, the company views the RFID market as having many opportunities.
http://rfid.frontlinetoday.com/1090.htm

 EAN / UPC
The EAN/UPC system is a worldwide product marking system that maintains uniqueness of every product manufactured globally that is sold at point of sale. There are two parts to the Universal Product Code (UPC). One is the symbology and the other is the coding system.
UPC is ubiquitous. When people think bar code, the image in their mind is a UPC symbol. It has been successfully employed in the retail industry in the United States and Canada since 1973

http://www.autoid.org/Primer/ean_upc.htm

Standards
There's a standards struggle, too. Kimberly-Clark, Target, Wal-Mart, and many other well-known companies have been pressing for several years for standards on what data is included on an RFID chip and how readers and tags communicate, initially as members of the Auto-ID Center and now by participating in EPCglobal Inc., a joint venture between EAN International and the Uniform Code Council. A single RFID standard has yet to emerge, and a fragmented approach could sink the effort. "We're going to do this one way," Target CIO Paul Singer said at the retail conference. "I really believe that's critical for making this happen."
http://www.informationweek.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=20900361


From the newswire:

Standardization will multiply rfid tags ubiquitously
A milestone was reached this week, when an international group refereeing the two groups succeeded in getting consensus on a single global protocol, said Henri Barthel, a Brussels-based manager with EAN International, the not-for-profit organization that oversees the bar code system and will help oversee the radio tagging.

At the same time, efforts are under way to harmonize ultrahigh frequency, or UHF, bands used by the radio tags, which work in the range of 860 to 960 megahertz. Problems include the fact that the frequency used for RFID applications in most European countries is reserved for military applications in France and in Poland.

With standards falling into place and initial trials in the United States and Europe reporting positive results, a strong uptick in demand for the radio chips is predicted over the next 12 to 18 months, said Christophe Duverne, vice president for marketing and sales at Philips Semiconductors' identification group, which makes the radio chips.

Gerd Wolfram, project manager in charge of Metro Group's Extra Future Store in Rheinberg, Germany, noted that before every product sold in stores can be tagged, radio tag readers will have to be installed on all store shelves and the check-out process changed.
http://www.iht.com/bin/print.php?file=527198.html

EPC Global fights royalties
No one knows how the lawsuit will play out, but it flies in the face of the Electronic Product Code Global group's plan to set a standard -- and hence jump-start adoption -- by companies giving up claims to licenses and royalties. The fear is that royalty payments will keep tag costs high, stalling widespread adoption.

This wrangle is affecting standardization, too. EPC Global is now formulating what the third generation of tags will be, and concern is rising about stepping on possible patents. China is also proving to be an impediment. Speculation is rife that Chinese retailers may adopt a different standard, creating a problem for global manufacturers wanting to sell to the world's biggest consumer market. While analysts are hopeful Wal-Mart could influence China to join ranks, Intermec's lawsuit could complicate matters, Prodromou says. "One thing China is dead-set against is paying royalties," he says.

RFID has other problems, but most won't become issues until individual items start being tagged. One is the basic laws of physics. Radio waves can't penetrate metal or liquid easily. Today, you couldn't mark an individual package of Baby Wipes inside of a big case or pallet and expect the RFID readers to pick it up. http://www.technewsworld.com/story/36266.html

EPC Global elects new president --  Electronic Product Code
( Chris )Adcock's appointment was approved by the boards of both the EAN International and the Uniform Code Council, which are copartners in the EPCglobal joint venture. EPCglobal said Adcock would begin his official duties as EPCglobal president on Sept. 1.
He will split his time between two offices that will be located in London, at the e.centre (EAN UK), and in
Lawrenceville, N.J., at the headquarters of the Uniform Code Council.


The organization is working aggressively to create a second-generation global standard for EPC systems operating in the UHF spectrum. It is also working to develop standards for the EPCglobal Network
(the global system that will allow companies to use EPC technology to track and share supply chain information),
to promote EPC technology outside of its roots in the consumer packaged goods and retail industries, and to prove there is a business case for adopting EPC technologies.
http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/1071/1/1/

RFID World Australia stalled by Standardization

Sydney plays host to RFID World today but not a single vendor will be offering Electronic Product Code (EPC) compliant products simply because the specifications are yet to be ratified.
In fact the standard, ISO18000 has only recently been agreed upon.

In the US the frequency is 915MHz at 4W; locally however, the ACA [ Australia] has only approved 915MHz to be used at 1W which restricts the distance at which tags can be read.
An industry push is under way to change it to 925MHz at 4W, according to Geoffrey Ramadan, chairman of Automatic Data Capture Australia. Ramadan said that while waiting for standards to be ratified, companies can run RFID trials with the tags that are available now.
http://www.arnnet.com.au/index.php/id;149890906;fp;2;fpid;1


More alphabet soup:

UPC -- Universal Product Code

UCC Net Registry
http://www.uccnet.org/

GDSN -- Global Data Synchronization Network
http://www.ean-int.org/Doc/NR%204-04%20GPC%20UDEX%20alignment%20210504%20FINAL.doc

UDEX
, a global standards organization based in the United Kingdom, maintains a database of coded product descriptions linked to Universal Product Codes (UPC) bar codes (EAN codes in Europe).
http://www.paperclick.com/press/pr_detail.cfm?ID=2

GPC -- Global Product Classification

GSMP -- Global Standards Management Process


ISO

Why the ISO 14443 Standard matters ( rms )
American Express, MasterCard and Visa have endorsed the ISO 14443 standard for contactless payment applications. "In essence, banks want to put a credit card's mag stripe data onto an RF chip," says Andy Richardson, TI-RFid's strategy manager for wireless commerce.

Prior to the establishment of the ISO 14443 standard, credit card issuers had been generally reluctant to do this. That's because the data transmission rate was too slow to handle relatively large amounts of encrypted financial data.  
http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/327/1/1/

American Express developed ExpressPay in conjunction with Texas Instruments RFid Systems, a world leader in radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. The ExpressPay key fob and reader are designed with an open architecture that is compatible with RFID industry standards (ISO/IEC Standard 14443). The ExpressPay key fob includes a number of security features, including data encryption. The ExpressPay reader can be implemented at merchant locations easily. It works with their existing point-of-sale system and is free to merchants during the pilot. Charges are authorized and processed through the existing credit and charge card payment network.
http://www.ti.com/rfid/docs/news/news_releases/2003/cust7-16-03.shtml



Articles on implanted rfid microchips....dead or alive


Corpse ID
Forensic experts want the use of microchips to become the new standard in corpse identification.
The chips were used as tags to identify bodies of the Dec 26 tsunami victims for the first time in the world, Dr Pattana Kitkailass of the Police Forensic Institute.
They agreed the technique should be the standard for identifying corpses whenever there is a major disaster
Dr Pattana said the numbers could disappear completely if bodies were too decomposed. Microchips were a much more reliable form of identification. Each chip was about the size of a grain of rice. They could be implanted in a skull and had a life of up to 75 years.
Pol Col Ponprasert Ganjanarintr, superintendent for police foreign affairs, said more than 2,400 corpses had been implanted with microchips so far.

http://www.bangkokpost.com/News/19Jan2005_news08.php

http://www.guardian.co.uk/tsunami/story/0,15671,1382758,00.html

Subcutaneous Chip
One Barcelona man who had the nightclub chip implanted told a newspaper that he would love to have his Social Security number, ID card and credit card on a subcutaneous chip so he would no longer have to carry a wallet
Most consumers, meanwhile, don’t want to carry or use a token, device or cell phone to authenticate their transactions, Gartner’s survey found.
http://moneycentral.msn.com/content/Banking/FinancialPrivacy/P90679.asp

Armenia : chip interview
The US suggests uniting the social cards and ID cards in a microchip and instilling it in human beings to be sure they won’t get lost or misused.
http://www.azg.am/?lang=EN&num=2005011902

Another reason for the chip--military IDs stolen
http://www.wjla.com/news/stories/0105/200259.html

DNA and microchip
The final death toll may change slightly, "but if we match the DNA tests of the dead and their relatives, we will likely find that the missing people are the unidentified dead," he said.
This is the world's first such integrated operation using the world's best and latest technology and specialist expertise from all over the world," said Australian police Inspector Jeff Emery, who heads up the DVI information centre.

http://www.turkishpress.com/world/news.asp?id=050111191340.prn92nns.xml

Monopoly on tags
A Birmingham, Ala., microchip manufacturer has sued Avid Identification Systems of Norco and Digital Angel of St. Paul, Minn., alleging in a $10 million suit that the two companies are participating in a "monopolistic conspiracy" in the marketing of microchip ID tags for pets. The suit filed by Crystal Import of Birmingham seeks to have Avid make its microchip encryption technology code public. Another suit filed last May in San Diego alleged that ID tags implanted by Banfield, The Pet Hospital, at 400 PetSmart stores across the country gave owners a false sense of security. Banfield used Crystal Import Corp. microchip technology that is widely used outside the United States, but is only in use at limited spots in the United States.
http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/business/20050112-9999-1b12calbrfs.html

New ISO doggie-chips 132 khz
Last year, the Oregon Humane Society began buying and implanting the new 134-kilohertz microchip -- also known as the International Standards Organization (ISO) chip -- from a Canadian company called Pethealth Inc.
http://www.oregonlive.com/news/oregonian/index.ssf?/base/news/1103547369277750.xml


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